Evaluation of some water saving devices in urban areas: A case study from the Sultanate of Oman

Hayder A. Abdel Rahman, Halima A Al-Farsi, Mushtaque Ahmed, Matheus F. A Goosen

Abstract


Water Saving Devices (WSDs) sustain demands for potable water, soften impacts on supply systems and inflict a positive effect on wastewater treatment systems. This study evaluated the effect of some WSDs in Oman. A questionnaire survey and some case studies were used. The survey results revealed that the pipe line system network for water supply accounted for about 67.7%, whereas the rest mainly use tankers. Around 37.2% of the participants received consumed 25000 - 45000 liters per household per month. Case studies showed no significant difference in household water usage before and after installation of WSDs due to pre-installed aerators. Toilet bags and dual flush toilets were not effective promoting users to flush. However, WSDs were significantly effective in restaurants, mosques, hotels and government buildings. Water consumption in shopping centres and hospitals slightly decreased. Retrofitting programs that involve replacement of existing plumbing equipment and residential water audit programs are recommended.


Keywords


Urban water; water saving devices; domestic water conservation

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jams.vol22iss1pp18-26

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