Main Article Content


In this study, a popular Indian dessert, kesari, was reformulated by substituting refined sugar at various levels (0%=control, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) with date past and syrup, and changes in instrumental texture profile, L*a*b* colour values and sensory properties were determined.  The hardness of date syrup kesari was higher than that of date paste kesari. However, there were no differences in hardness among various levels of replacement.  There were no differences between syrup vs paste products or among various levels of replacements in cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, adhesiveness and chewiness of kesari.  The developed kesari scored 5.5 to 7.5 on a 9 level hedonic scale (like slightly-like moderately) in all sensory attributes.  Replacement of sugar at 75% and 100% levels, significantly lowered the scores for most of the sensory attributes.  Around 50% of the panellist in informed sensory, selected 50% replaced products (paste or syrup) as their first choice.


Date paste date syrup texture sweetness colour kesari

Article Details

How to Cite
Manickvasagan, A., Kumar, C. S., & Al-Attabi, Z. H. (2018). Effect of sugar replacement with date paste and date syrup on texture and sensory quality of kesari (traditional Indian dessert). Journal of Agricultural and Marine Sciences [JAMS], 22(1), 67–74.


  1. Al-Hooti S., Sidhu J.S., Qabazard H. 1997. Physicochemical characteristics of five date fruit cultivars grown in the United Arab Emirates, Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, Vol.50, Kluewer academic publisher, Netherland, ISSN:0921-9668, pp.101–113.
  2. Al Farsi, M. and Young, L.C., 2012. Dates-production, processing, food and medicinal values, CRC press, London, Chapter No.25, pp. 351.
  3. Aboubacar, A., Hashim, I.B. and Afifi, H.S. 2010. Quality characteristics of muffin containing date syrup as sweetener. Poster presented in Fourth International Date Palm Conference (FIDPC), March 15 – 17 Abu Dhabi, UAE.
  4. Abbèsa, F., Kchaoua, W., Bleckerb C., Ongenac, M., Lognayd, G., Attia, H. and Besbesa, S. 2013. Effect of processing conditions on phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of date syrup, Industrial Crops and Products, Vol.44, Elseivier Science, London, ISSN:0926-6690, pp.634– 642.
  5. Anese, M., Manzocco, L., Nicoli, M., Lerici, C.R. 1999. Antioxidant properties of tomato juice as affected by heating, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol.79, Jhon Wiley & Sons, New York, ISSN: 1097-0010, pp.750-754.
  6. Arya, S.S., Thakur, B.R. 1986. Instant Halwa (Kesari Bath) mix-storage stability and packaging requirements, Indian Food Industry, Vol.5, AFST(I), India, ISSN: 0975-8402, pp.119-121.
  7. Banu, H.N.I., Singh, V., Indiramma, A.R. and Prakash M. 2013. Shelf stable multigrain halwa mixes: preparation of halwa, their textural and sensory studies. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 50, AFST(I), India, ISSN: 0972-2610, pp.879-889.
  8. Besbes, S., Drira, L., Blecker, S., Deroanne, C. and Attia H.. 2009. Adding value to hard date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Compositional, functional and sensory characteristics of date jam, Food Chemistry, Vol.112, Elsevier, London, ISSN: 0308-8146, pp.406–411.
  9. Benmeddour, Z., Mehinagic, E., Meurlay, D.E. and Louaileche, H. 2013. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacities of ten Algerian date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars: A comparative study, Journal of Functional Foods, 5: 346 –354.
  10. Bower, J.A. and Saadat, M.A. 1998. Consumer preference for retail fat spreads: an olive oil based product compared with market dominant brands. Food Quality and Preference, 9: 367-376.
  11. Chandini ,S.K., Rati, R.E.and Jamuna P. 2005. Effect of varietal differences and polishing of rice on quality parameters of Idli. Journal of Sensory Studies, 20: 397-409.
  12. Elleuch, M., Bedigian, D., Maazoun, B., Besbes, S., Blecker, C. and Attia, H. 2014. Improving halva quality with dietary fibres of sesame seed coats and date pulp, enriched with emulsifier. Food Chemistry, 145: 765–771.
  13. Gouhari, A.A., Habibinajafi, M.B. and Hadad, K.M.H. 2005. Effect of date syrup as a substitute for sugar on the physicochemical and sensory properties of soft ice cream. Iranian Food Science and Technology Research Journal, 1: 3-32.
  14. Hashim, I.B., Khalil, A.H. and Afifi, H.S. 2009. Quality characteristics and consumer acceptance of yogurt fortified with date fiber. Journal of Dairy Science, 92: 5403-5407.
  15. Lustig R., Schmidt L.A.and Brindis C.D. 2012. The toxic truth about sugar. Nature, 482: 27-29.
  16. Manickavasagan A. 2012. Dates-production, processing, food and medicinal values, CRC press, London, Chapter 22, pp. 351.
  17. Manickavasagan, A., Teena, A.M., Al-Attabi, Z.H. and Al-Zakwani, I.M. 2013. Dates as substitute for added sugar in traditional foods – A case study with idli.Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 25: 899-906.
  18. Manickavasagan, A., Chandini, S.K., Sivakumar, A. and Pratibha R. 2014. Effect of dates on fermentation of appam batter. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology, 8: 1-7.
  19. Martín-Sánchez, A.M., Ciro-Gómez, G., Sayas, E., Vilella-Esplá, J., Ben-Abda, J.J. and Pérez-Álvarez ,A. 2013. Date palm by-products as a new ingredient for the meat industry: Application to pork liver pâté.Meat Science, 93: 880-887.
  20. Pai, J.S. 2006. Traditional Indian Foods: Physico chemical aspects, Bulletin PFNDAI (Protein Foods and Nutrition Development Association of India), India, pp.1-2.
  21. Rahaman, M.S. and Al-Farsi, S.A. 2005. Instrumental texture profile analysis (TPA) of date flesh as a function of moisture content. Journal of Food Engineering, 66: 505-511.
  22. Roufegari, N. 2002. The examination of colored compounds from date syrup and their elimination, Master degree thesis, Food Science and Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture Tabriz, Iran.
  23. Saafi, E.B., El-Arem, A., Issaoui, M., Hammami, M.and Achour, L. 2009. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of four date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit varieties grown in Tunisia. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 44: 2314–2319.
  24. Sidhu, J.S., Al-Saqer, J.M., Al-Hooti, S.N. and Al-Othman A. 2003. Quality of pan bread made by replacing sucrose with date syrup produced by using pectinase/cellulase enzymes. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 58: 1–8.
  25. Vayalil, P.K. 2002. Antioxidant and antimutagenic properties of aqueous extract of date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae), Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 50: 610–617.
  26. World Health Organization (WHO). 2003. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Expert Consultation, Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. WHO Technical Support Series No. 916, Chapter No. 4, pp.30, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.