Main Article Content


A comparative study on induction of somaclonal variation in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) cv. Birdie regenerants obtained through direct and indirect organogenesis was carried out. Two types of non-meristematic explants (e.g. cotyledon and petiole) were used for this study. A significantly lower (p<0.05) frequency of variation was observed in muskmelon somaclones regenerated via direct organogenesis (MS medium with BAP) compared to indirect (MS medium with BAP and 2,4-D). Morphological study revealed that the somaclones regenerated from proximal cotyledon, petiole and distal cotyledon explants through direct organogenesis did not show any variation in elongation medium at the concentrations of BAP 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mg-l, respectively. In contrast, higher number of morphologically somaclonal variants was obtained from these explants at the same concentration of BAP obtained through indirect organogenesis. Other concentrations of BAP, on the other hand, added to the elongation medium showed higher percentage of somaclones with different types of novel variations, e.g. early flowering including higher number of flowers, slow growth of shoots with variant shape of leaves having long and thick petioles, and stubby shoot apices including flattened stem. These variations could be the prime genetic materials to develop new varieties of muskmelon, e.g. high yielding variety, early, late variety, dwarf variety, and variety with desirable body configurations. The results suggest that specific concentrations of BAP or combinations of BAP and 2,4-D have a significant (p<0.05) influence on the induction of novel somaclonal variations in muskmelon regenerants. Future cytogenetic and molecular studies reveal that the novel genetic variations at the chromosome level in somaclonal variants can exist.


Muskmelon novel somaclones direct organogenesis indirect organogenesis variety development.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mohiuddin, A., Abdullah, Z. C., Chowdhury, M., Harikrishna, K., & Napis, S. (2021). Relationship between Induction of Novel Somaclonal Variants and Types of Organogenesis in Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.). Journal of Agricultural and Marine Sciences [JAMS], 27(1), 90–98.


  1. Ahmed MS, Dilnawaz AG, Jacqueline B, Satomi H, Manuel Z, Aslam J, Muhammad ZI, Shahid IA. (2019). Somaclonal variation for red rot and sugarcane mosaic virus resistance and candidate genes integrity assessment in somaclones of selected sugarcane varieties (Saccharum officinarum L.). Pakistan Journal Agricultural Science 56. DOI: 10.21162/ PAKJAS/18.6578.
  2. Al Mawaali QS, Al-Sadi A, Al-Said FA, Rahman MS, Al-Zakwani I, Ali A, Al-Yahyia M, Deadman MI. (2017). Effect of grafting on resistance to vine decline disease, yield and fruit quality in muskmelon cv. Sawadi. Journal of Agricultural and Marine Sciences. 23(1): 2-10.
  3. Al-Noor MM, Quadir QF, Naher J, Rashid H-or, Chakrobarty T, Jewel ZA, Razia S. Nath UK. (2019). Inducing variability in rice for enriched iron and zinc content through in vitro culture. Plant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology 29(2): 161-174.
  4. Anand SP, Jayakumar E, Jeyachandran R, Nandagobalan V, Doss A. (2012). Direct organogenesis of Passiflora foetida L. through nodal explants. Plant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology 22(1): 87-91.
  5. Bajaj YPS. (1990). Somaclonal variation–origin, introduction, cryopreservation, and implications in plant breeding. In: Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry. Vol. II. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. p. 3-48.
  6. Constantin MJ. (1981). Chromosome instability in cell and tissue cultures and regenerated plants. Environmental and Experimental Botany 21: 359-368.
  7. Evenor D, Pressman E, Ben-Yephet Y, Rappaport L. (1994). Somaclonal variation in celery and selection by coculturing toward resistance to Septoria apiicola. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 39: 203-210.
  8. Ewa H-F, Maria L, Anna P, Kazimierz M. (2000). Selection for virus resistance in tomato exposed to tissue culture procedures. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 22: 317–324.
  9. Gray DJ, BcColley DW, Compton ME. (1993). High frequency somatic embryogenesis from quiescent seed cotyledons of Cucumis melo cultivars. American Society Horticultural Science. 118(3): 425-432.
  10. Harini I, Sita GL. (1993). Direct somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from immature embryos of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). Plant Science 89: 107-112.
  11. Harsimrat KB, Manjot K. (2020). Role of plant growth regulators in improving fruit set, quality and yield of fruit crops: a review. Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 95(2): 137-146.
  12. Jelaska S. 1986. Cucurbits. In: Bajaj YPS. editor. Biotechnology in agriculture and foresty. Vol. 2. Crops I. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg. p. 371-386.
  13. Khatun MM, Tanzena T, Sabina Y, Salimullah M, Iftekhar A. (2018). Evaluation of genetic fidelity of in vitro-propagated Aloe vera plants using DNA-based markers. Science Asia 44: 87-91.
  14. Larkin PJ, Scowcroft WR. (1981). Somaclonal variation – a novel source of variability from cell cultures for plant improvement. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 60:197-214.
  15. Leva AR, Petruccelli R. (2011). Dwarf olive trees for ornamental use: a morphological evaluation. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 86(3): 217-220.
  16. Mofidabadi AJ, Jorabchi A, Shahrzad S, Mahmodi F. (2001). New genotypes development of Populus euphratica Oliv. using gametoclonal variation. Silvae Genetica 50: 275-279.
  17. Mohiuddin AKM. (1998). Improvement in organogenesis and the development of a transformation procedure for cucumber and muskmelon. Ph.D. Thesis, University Putra Malaysia.
  18. Mohiuddin AKM, Chowdhury MKU, Abdullah ZC, Harikrishna K, Napis S. (1998). Studies on the improvement of in vitro shoot regeneration of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) cv. Birdie. Asia Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology 6(1): 69-74.
  19. Mohiuddin AKM, Harikrishna K, Chowdhury MKU, Abdullah ZC, Napis S. (2000). Influence of acetosyringone on transformation of cucumber mediated by Agrobacterium tumeficiens. Plant Tissue Culture 10(2): 167-174.
  20. Mohiuddin AKM, Napis S, Abdullah ZC, Chowdhury MKU, Harikrishna K. (2003). Enhancement of cucumber somaclonal production by plant growth regulator. Bangladesh Journal Plant Breeding Genetics 16(2): 9-16.
  21. Moreno V, Garcia-Aogo M, Granell I, Garcia-Sogo B. (1985). Plant regeneration from calli of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. ‘Amarillo Oro’). Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 5: 139-146.
  22. Moreno V, Zubeldia I, Garcia-Sogo B, Nuez F, Roig L A. (1996). Somatic embryogenesis in protoplast-derived cells of Cucumis melo L. In: Horn W, Jenson CJ, Odenbach W, Schieder O, editor. Genetic manipulation in plant breeding. Walter de Gruyter and Co., Berlin, New York. p. 491-493.
  23. Murashige T, Nakano R. (1966). Tissue Culture as a potential tool in obtaining polyploidy plants. Journal of Heredity. 57: 115-118.
  24. Murashige T, Skoog F. (1962). A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue culture. Physiologia Plantarum 15: 473-487.
  25. Niedz RP, Smith SS, Dunbar KB, Stephens CT, Murakish HH. (1989). Factors influencing shoot regeneration from cotyledonery explants of Cucumis melo. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 24: 27-30.
  26. Oridate T, Atsumi H, Ito S, Araki H. (1992). Genetic difference in somatic embryogeesis from seeds of (Cucumis melo L.). Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 18: 313-319.
  27. Orton TJ. (1984). Somaclonal Variation: Theoretical and Practical Consideration. In: Gustafson JP. editor. Gene Manipulation in plant improvement. Plenum Press, New York. p. 427-468.
  28. Patnaik J, Sahoo S, Debata BK. (1999). Somaclonal variation in cell suspension culture-derived regenerants of Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) Wats var. motia. Plant Breeding 118: 351-354.
  29. Pijnacker LP, Ramulu KS. (1990). Somaclonal variation in potato: a karyotypic evaluation. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 39(2): 163-169.
  30. Ren Y, Haejeen B, Ian SC, Jean G, Bhimanagouda SP, Kevin MC. (2012). Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and shoot regeneration in elite breeding lines of western shipper cantaloupe and honeydew melon (Cucumis melo L.). Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 108:147-158.
  31. Ren Y, Haejeen B, Jean G, Keerti SR, Bhimanagouda SP, Kevin MC. (2013). Shoot regeneration and ploidy variation in tissue culture of honeydew melon (Cucumis melo L. inodorus). In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology-Plant. 49: 223-229.
  32. Saraswat R, Kumar M. (2019). Plant regeneration in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) via somatic embryogenesis and induction of meristemoids in abnormal embryos. Plant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology 29(1): 33-47.
  33. Sharma V, Barkha K, Nidhi S, Anoop KD, Vikash SJ. (2014). In vitro flower induction from shoots regenerated from cultured auxillary buds of endangered medical herb Swertia chirayita H. Karst. Biotechnology Research International. doi: 10.1155/2014/264690.
  34. Shasthree T, Savitha R, Mallaiah B. (2009). Somaclonal variations in an endangered and medicinally important cucurbit, Citrullus Colosynthis (L.) Schrad. Biotechnology 3(4): 17-23.
  35. Skirvin RM. (1978). Natural and induced variation in tissue culture. Euphytica. 27: 241–266.
  36. Sreenivasan TV, Jalaja NC. (1983). Sugarcane varietal improvement through tissue culture. In: Sen SK, Giles KL editor. Plant cell culture in crop improvement. Basic Life Sciences, vol 22. Springer, Boston, MA. p. 371-376.
  37. Taşkın H, Gökhan B, Mehmet K, Saadet B. (2013). Use of tissue culture techniques for producing virus-free plant in garlic and their identification through real-time PCR. The Scientific World Journal.
  38. Trulson AJ, Shahin EA. (1986). In vitro plant regeneration in the genus Cucumis. Plant Science 47: 35-43.
  39. Vitamvas J, Viehmannova I, Petra HC, Mrhalova H, Eliasova K . (2019). Assessment of somaclonal variation in indirect morphogenesis-derived plants of Arracacia xanthorrhiza. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira. 54, e00301. DOI:
  40. Yuan J-L, Yue J-J, Xiao-Ping GU, Choun-Sea L. (2017). Flowering of woody bamboo in tissue culture systems. Frontiers Plant Science.