Main Article Content

Abstract

Camels are important and multipurpose animals in many parts of the world including Middle East. Camel milk may harbor different bacteria. Centuries old tradition of consumption of raw camel milk is still a common practice in Oman. This study was carried out to conduct a microbiological analysis of camel milk samples with subclinical mastitis in the region of Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

 

A total of 61 camel (Camelus dromedarius) milk samples were collected from various animal holdings in and around Muscat. Onsite California Mastitis Test (CMT) revealed 18 (29%) camels positive for subclinical mastitis. Positive milk samples were subjected to routine microbiological workup for bacterial isolation and identification.

 

A total of 7 (47%) Enterobacter cloacae isolates, 4 (27%) Escherichia. coli, 3 (20%) coagulase negative Staphylococci spp. (CNS) and 1 (7%) Micrococcus spp. were identified out of 15 milk samples. Three milk samples did not yield any growth after two repeat attempts. Isolates belonging to Enterobacteriaceae were further subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity testing. All E. cloacae samples 7 (100%) were found to be resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, first generation cephalosporins, and the macrolide group of antibiotics whereas 3 (43%) E. cloacae isolates were found to be intermediately resistant to the phenicol group of antibiotics. All four E. coli (100%) isolates were found resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, first generation cephalosporins, and 2 (50%) showed resistance to macrolides, whereas 1 (25%) isolate was found to be resistant to tetracyclines.

 

Conclusion: In this study, Enterobacteriaceae were the most common group of bacteria isolated from camels with subclinical mastitis. Enterobacter cloacae and E. coli were the predominant organisms.

Keywords

Raw camel milk Enterobacter cloacae E. coli resistance

Article Details

How to Cite
Asi, M. N., Al-Marzooqi, W., ElTahir, Y., Ghalya, A., Toobi, A., Al Raisi, S., Ali, H., & H. Johnson, E. (2020). Subclinical Mastitis in Camels in Oman: A Pilot Study. Journal of Agricultural and Marine Sciences [JAMS], 26(1), 21–26. https://doi.org/10.24200/jams.vol26iss1pp21-26

References

  1. Al-Rammahi HM, Hatem AA, Al-Atabi AC (2018). Diagnostic study of she camel subclinical mastitis in al-hyadia district – al-najaf province. Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 6(6).
  2. Al-Salihi KA, Abdullah S, Amjad L, Leitha H (2017). Epidemiological study of clinical and subclinical mastitis in she- camel in Samawah desert / Al Muthanna governorate. MRVSA. 6(2): 11-24.
  3. Barłowska J, Szwajkowska M, Litwińczuk Z, Król J. Nutritional value and technological suitability of milk from various animal species used for dairy production. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2011; 10: 291– 302.
  4. Bengtsson B, Unnerstad HE, Ekman T, Artursson K, Nilsson-Ost M, Waller KP. Antimicrobial susceptibility of udder pathogens from cases of acute clinical mastitis in dairy cows. Vet Microbiol 2009; 136: 142-149
  5. Dahmen S, Métayer V, Gay E, Madec J Y & Haenni M. Characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-carrying plasmids and clones of Enterobacteriaceae causing cattle mastitis in France. Veterinary microbiology 2013; 162 (2-4): 793–99)https://www.food.gov.uk/sites/default/files/media/document/fs102127-appendix1_0.pdf (last assessed on (6-Sep-2019)
  6. Gupta G, Tak V, Mathur P. Detection of AmpC β lactamases in Gram-negative Bacteria. Journal of laboratory physicians. 2014;6(1):1-6
  7. Hoffmann H, Roggenkamp A. Population genetics of the nomenspecies Enterobacter cloacae. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69, 5306–5318 (2003)
  8. Keller R, Pedroso MZ, Ritchmann R, Silva RM. Occurrence of virulence-associated properties in Enterobacter cloacae. Infect Immun. 1998;66:645–649.
  9. Leclercq R Mechanisms of resistance to macrolides and lincosamides: nature of the resistance elements and their clinical implications. Clin Infect Dis 2002;34:482–92 10.1086/324626
  10. Lee SO, Kim YS, Kim BN, Kim MN, Woo JH, Ryu J. Impact of previous use of antibiotics on development of resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins in patients with enterobacter bacteremia. 2002; Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 8, 577–581
  11. Leyla H, Aggad H, Hamad B. Bacterial causative agents with subclinical mastitis in Dromedary She-Camels in Southeaster Algeria. Jor Jourl of Bio Sci 2017; 209-214.
  12. Lipman LJA, de Nijs A, Lam TJGM, Gaastra, T. Identification of Eschericia coli strains from cows with clinical mastitis by serotyping and DNA polymorphism patterns with REP and ERIC primers. Vet Microbiol 1995;43:13-19
  13. Lj T. Role of milk and milk products in nutrition in tropical and subtropical countries. J Dairy Sci 1965; 48: 1547– 50
  14. Mezzatesta, M.L., Gona, F., and Stefani, S. Enterobactercloacae complex: clinicalimpactandemergingantibioticresistance. FutureMicrobiol. 2012; 7, 887–902.
  15. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. 2000. Methods for disk susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically, 7th ed. NCCLS document M2-A7. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Wayne, Pa
  16. National Mastitis Council Inc., USA 1990, National Mastitis Council, Inc., 1990. Microbiological Proce-dures for the Diagnosis of Bovine Udder Infection. National Mastitis Council, Inc., Arlington, VA, USA).
  17. Obeid, A. I. and H. O. Bagadi. 1996. Mastitis in Camelus dromedarius and the somatic cell count of camel's milk. Res. Vet. Sci. 61:55-58
  18. Ojo KK, Ulep C, Van Kirk N, Luis H, Bernardo M, Leitao J, et al.The mef(A) gene predominates among seven macrolide resistance genes identified in gram-negative strains representing 13 genera, isolated from healthy Portuguese children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004;48:3451–6 10.1128/AAC.48.9.3451-3456.2004
  19. Potron, A.,Poirel,L.,Rondinaud,E., and Nordmann,P. Intercontinental spread of OXA-48 beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriace over a 11-year period, 2001 to 2011. Euro Surveill. 18. Pii: 20549
  20. Quinn PJ, Carter ME, Markey B, Carter GR (1999). Clin. Vet. Microbiol. Wolf publishing, London, England. p. 327.
  21. Quinn PJ, Carter ME, Markey BK, Carter GR. Clinical Veterinary Microbiology. 2nd ed. UK, London: Mosby publish ring; 1998.
  22. Saber, K., S. Mohammed and A. Ahmed. 2010.Sanitary conditions of lactating dromedary she-camel environment with special reference to milk quality and subclinical mastitis monitoring. Emir. J. Food Agric.22(3):207-215.
  23. Saleh, S.K. and Faye B. Detection of subclinical mastitis in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedaries) using somatic cell counts, California mastitis test and udder pathogen. Emir. J. Food Agric. 2011. 23 (1): 48-58
  24. Sanders WE Jr, Sanders CC. Enterobacter spp. Pathogens poised to flourish at the turn of the century. 1997; Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10, 220–241
  25. Schalm, O.W. and Noorlander, D.D. Experiments and observations leading to development of California Mastitis Tes. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc., 1957, 130: 199–204.
  26. Sumathi BR, Veeregowda BM, Amitha GR. Prevalence and antimicrobial profile of bacterial isolates from clinical mastitis. Vet World 2008; 1: 237-238
  27. Weem, MF., Dereddy NR, Arnold SR. (2015). Mother’s milk as a source of Enterobacter cloacae sepsis in a preterm infant. Breastfeed Med. Dec;10(10):503-4. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2015.0146. Epub 2015 Nov 5.
  28. Zibaee S, Hosseini SM, Yousefi M, Taghipour A, Kiani MA, Noras MR. Nutritional and therapeutic characteristics of camel milk in children: a systematic review. Electron Phys 2015; 7: 1523– 8