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Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the leading staple and strategic food crop in the Sultanate of Oman; however, the national wheat production can meet less than 1% of the domestic requirements. The balance is met through imports from Australia, Canada, Russia, and Argentina. However, reliance on imported wheat alone may put Oman at risk in the event of wheat export bans. Therefore, wheat production needs to be enhanced to ensure national food security. Nonetheless, water deficits, salinity, prolonged droughts, unavailability of stress resilient genotypes, and heatwaves challenge this notion. In this review manuscript, the current status, constraints, and opportunities to improve wheat production in the Sultanate of Oman have been discussed. The major opportunities to improve the wheat production include crop improvement (i.e. development of short duration, high yielding, disease resistant and climate resilient varieties), efficient irrigation system, adoption of conservation agriculture to conserve the resources, strengthening system of certified seed distribution, seed enhancements, and development and dissemination of site-specific production technologies.
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