Optimal Cartographic Representation of Geographical Mobile Phenomena on Thematic Maps

Abdul-Rahman Dobs


Nature is full of geographical kinetic phenomena; some are tangible such as population emigration, money transfer, goods movement and transportation. Yet others are intangible such as energy, thoughts, reputation and civilization. These phenomena have got specific characteristics while moving such as the movement’s route, speed, locations, strength of the kinetic phenomena and their type and structure. Different geographical kinetic phenomena can be illustrated on maps called “Animation Maps”, which are considered part of the Thematic Maps, based on their nature and function by the motion symbols. This article studies most of the cartographic representation methods that are used in designing Thematic Maps. It also concentrates on motion symbolizing methods. It studies the nature and types of kinetic phenomena and identifies their different characteristics, and presents and analyzes its numerous demonstration ways on maps, using animation symbols. Finally, it reveals the best ways to design and present Animation Maps. This paper aims to study kinetic phenomena and their kinds and characteristics, and to analyze the methods currently used to demonstrate them on Animation Maps. This leads to suggest new methods and ways in this field, in order to assist in demonstrating geographical phenomena on maps accurately and clearly. The study reached a number of results such as determining cartographic representation methods and their fields, and finding the best optimal representation methods of kinetic geographical phenomena, and their different characteristics on Thematic Maps, and thus determining the best methods to design and present Animation Maps.


Thematic Maps; Flow Maps; Animated Phenomena; Methods of Map Representation

Full Text:



أبو راضي، فتحي عبد العزيز، 2000، خرائط التوزيعات البشرية ورسومها البيانية، دار النهضة العربية، بيروت.

بن سلمى، ناصر بن محمد، 1995، خرائط التوزيعات البشرية، مكتبة العبيكان، الرياض.

دبس، عبد الرحمن مصطفى، 2012، طرق إعداد ورسم الخرائط الموضوعية (التوزيعات)، دار الزمان للنشر والتوزيع، المدينة المنورة.

سطيحة، محمد محمد، 1972، دراسات في علم الخرائط، دار النهضة العربية، بيروت.

الشرنوبي، محمد عبد الرحمن، 1970، خرائط التوزيعات البشرية، مكتبة الأنجلو المصرية، القاهرة.

العيسوي، محمد فايز، 2000، خرائط التوزيعات البشرية/ أسس وتطبيقات، دار المعرفة الجامعية، الإسكندرية.

Andrienko, G., Andrienko, N., Bak, P., Keim, D., Wrobel, S., 2013, Visual Analytics of Movement, University of Bonn Bonn Germany, springer. Berliant, A. M., 2002, Cartography, Aspect Press, Moscow.

Boyandin, I., Bertini, E., and Lalanne, D., 2010, Using flow maps to explore migrations over time. In Proc. Workshop in Geospatial Visual Analytics: Focus on Time (GeoVA(t)).

Chang, Kang-tsung. 2012, Introduction to Geographic Information Systems. McGraw-Hill: New York, 6 Edition.

Cornel, D., Konev, A., Sadransky, B., Horváth, Z., Brambilla, A., Viola, I., Waser, J., 2016, Composite Flow Maps, In Computer Graphics Forum (Proceedings EuroVis 2016), 35(3),201 6.

Debiasi, A., F. Graphitech, B. Simões, and R. De Amicis. 2014. Supervised ForceDirected Algorithm for the Generation of Flow Maps. Paper read at WSCG 2014 -22nd International Conference on Computer Graphics, Visualization andComputer Vision at Plzen, Czech Republic.

Force Directed Flow Map Layout. Alberto Debiasi, Bruno Simões and Raffaele De Amicis. Fondazione Graphitech, Via Alla Cascata 56/c, 28133, Trento, Italy.

Gould, P. R., 1967, On the geographical interpretation of eigenvalues. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 42: 53–86.

Groff, E., and McEwen, T., 2006, Exploring the Spatial Configuration of Places Related to Homicide Events. Washington, DC, National Institute of Justice.

Guo, D., and X. Zhu. 2014. Origin-Destination Flow Data Smoothing and Mapping. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 20 (12):2043-2052.

Kevin Buchin, Bettina Speckmann, Kevin Verbeek, 2011,Angle-Restricted Steiner Arborescences for Flow Map Layout, EuroCG 2011, Morschach, Switzerland.

Landré, M., & Peeters, P., 2012, Creating Tourism Transport Flow Maps with GIS: A Practical Guide: file:///C:/Users/adobs/Downloads/Landr%C3%A9,%20%20M.%20and%20Peeters%20P.%20-%20Creating%20tourism%20flow%20maps%20with%20GIS%20-%20A%20Practical%20Guide%20(2).pdf

Losiakov, Losiakov,N.N., Skvartsov, P. A., Kamensky, A. V., & other, 1986, topographical drawing, Moscow, Nedra.

Phan, D., Xiao, L. Yeh, , R. , and Hanrahan, P., (2005), Flow map layout. In Information Visualization, 2005. INFOVIS 2005. IEEE Symposium on, IEEE.

Pieke B, Krüger , 2007, A. Flow Maps – Automatic Generation and Visualization in GIS. Proceedings of GI-Days 2007, IfGIprints 30, Münster; 261-265.

Quan Hoa, Phong H. Nguyen, Tobias Åström, Mikael Jern, 2011, Implementation of a Flow Map Demonstrator for Analyzing Commuting and Migration Flow Statistics Data,Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 21.

Salishev, K. A., 1990, Introduction to Cartography, Third Edition, Puplished By Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow.

Slocum, T. A., McMaster, R. B., Kessler, F. C., and Howard, H. H., 2009, Thematic Cartography and Geovisualization. Pearson, New Jersey, 3rd edition.

Ullman, E. L., and Dacey M. F. 1960, The minimum requirements approach to the urban economic base. Papers in Regional Science 6: 175–94.

Verbeek, K., Buchin, K. and Speckmann, B. Flow map layout via spiral trees. Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on, 17(12):2536, 2011.

Vostokova,A.V., Koshel,C. M., Ushakova, L. A., 2002, Maps Production Computer Design, Aspekt Press, Moscow .

W. Tobler. Experiments in migration mapping by computer. The American Cartographer, 14(2),1987.

Wood, J. , Dykes, J. and Slingsby, A. Visualization of origins, destinations and flows with OD maps. The Cartographic Journal, 47(2),2010.

Zhou, H., P. Xu, X. Yuan, and H. Qu., 2013, Edge Bundling in Information Visualization, Tsinghua Science and Technology 18 (2).

Zhu, X. and D. Guo 2014. "Mapping Large Spatial Flow Data with Hierarchical Clustering", Transactions in GIS, 18(3).

Waldo Tobler, Movement Mapping


ArcGIS – Flow Maps:







Generating Distributive Flow Maps with ArcGIS:



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jass.vol9iss2pp5-25


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Abdul-Rahman Dobs

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


This journal and its content is licensed under a Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International.

Flag Counter