Main Article Content


The Project-Based Learning (PBL) approach is widely used as a curriculum and basic learning method. This type of learning has been explored in different contexts and at various stages ranging from early stagesof education to primary, preparatory and secondary schools as well as in higher education. PBL leads to transforming the acquisition of teacher-based theoretical knowledge to the efficiency of learning through practice. This approach emphasizes collaborative learning, as well as the tangible results achieved by students to represent and reflect what they have learned. PBL can be used to solve complex problems in all sciences, including teaching of archaeology. The authors of this study applied this approach to their students in the Department of Archaeology at Sultan Qaboos University through the course entitled "Special Topic in the Omani Heritage". This was achieved by creating and designing a project and applying it. Then, a questionnaire was used as a research tool. The results indicate that the goal of the PBL process has largely succeeded in achieving the objectives that the authors sought to achieve in this study. This approach has helped students to develop their own skills of good planning, organization and time management, evaluation and problems solving, in addition to establishing the importance of their cultural heritage. Thus, this approach has proven that it is effective in the field of teaching archaeology and heritage. Its application has established the students' concept of cultural heritage in a scientific and practical way. It also made them more interactive with their community, particularly in relation to the awareness of the importance of preserving their heritage.


Teaching Archaeology Project-Based Learning Cultural Heritage Sultan Qaboos University

Article Details


  1. Akınoğlu, O. & Tandoğan, R. Ö. (2007). The Effects of Problem-Based Active Learning in Science Education on Students’ Academic Achievement, Attitude and Concept Learning. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 3(1): 71-81.
  2. Al-Balushi, S. M. & Al-Aamri, S. S. (2014). The Effect of Environmental Science Projects on Students’ Environmental Knowledge and Science Attitudes. International Research in Geographical & Environmental Education, 23(3): 213-227.
  3. Aldabbus, S. (2018). Project-Based Learning: Implementation & Challenges. International Journal of Education, Learning and Development, 6(3): 71-79.
  4. Anday, S.; Henne, K. & Horan, S. 2000. Improving Student Organizational Skills through the Use of Organizational Skills in the Curriculum. Available online: Accessed in: 1st of April 2019.
  5. Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., Airasian, P. W., Crulkshank, K. A., Mayer, R. E., Pintrich, P. R., & Wittrock, M. C. (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, abridged edition. White Plains, NY: Longman.
  6. Barak, M. (2012). From ‘doing’ to ‘doing with Learning’: Reflection on an Effort to Promote Self-regulated Learning in Technological Projects in High School. European Journal of Engineering Education, 37: 105–116.
  7. Bell, S. (2010). Project-based Learning for the 21st Century: Skills for the Future. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 83(2): 39-43.
  8. Benwell, C. & James. E. (1991). Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom. Washington, The George Washington University, School of Education and Human Development.
  9. Bereiter, C. & Scardamalia, M. (1993). Surpassing Ourselves. An Inquiry into the Nature and Implications of Expertise. Chicago, IL: Open Court.
  10. Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. New York, David McKay.
  11. Blumenfeld, P., Fishman, B.J., Krajcik, J., Marx, R.W. & Soloway, E. (2000). Creating Usable Innovations in Systemic Reform: Scaling up Technology-Embedded Project-based Science in Urban Schools. Educational Psychologist, 35(3): 149-164.
  12. Blumenfeld, P.C., Soloway, E., Marx, R.W, Krajcik, J.S., Guzdial, M. & Palincsar, A. (1991). Motivating Project-based Learning: Sustaining the doing, Supporting the Learning, Educational Psychologist, 26: 369–398.
  13. Chickering, A. W. & Gamson, Z. F. (1987). Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. American Association for Higher Education Bulletin, 17(3): 140-146.
  14. Clark, D. R. (1999). Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains, Available from:
  15. Costa, A. (2001). Developing Minds: A Resource Book for Teaching Thinking. 3rd addition, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Virginia, USA.
  16. Cranmer-Byng, L. & Kapadia, S. A. (1910). The Sayings of Confucius. E. P. Button and Company: New York.
  17. Doppelt, Y. (2003). Implementation and Assessment of Project-Based Learning in a Flexible Environment”. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 255: 13-72.
  18. Duman, B., & Yavuz, Ö. K. (2018). The Effect of Project-Based Learning on Students’ Attitude Towards English Classes. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 6(11a):186-193.
  19. Efstratia, D. (2014). Experiential Education through Project Based Learning. Procedia-social and behavioral sciences, 152: 1256-1260.
  20. Erstad, O. (2002). Norwegian Students Using Digital Artifacts in Project-based Learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 18(4): 427-437.
  21. Felder, R. (1993). Reaching the Second Tier: Learning and Teaching Styles in Colleges Science Education. Journal of College Science Teaching, 23(5): 286-90.
  22. Harrow, A. J. (1972). A Taxonomy of the Psychomotor Domain: A Guide for Developing Behavioral Objectives. New York, McKay.
  23. Heitman, G. (1996). Project-Oriented Study and Project-Organisized Curricula: A Brief Review of Intentions and Solutions. European Journal of Engineering Education, 21: 121–132.
  24. Helle, L., Tynjälä, P. & Olkinuora, E. 2006. Project-based Learning in post-Secondary Education–Theory, Practice and Rubber Sling Shots. Higher Education, 51: 287-314.
  25. Hmelo-Silver, C.E., Duncan, R.G. & Chinn, C.A. (2007). Scaffolding and Achievement in Problem-based and Inquiry Learning: a Response to Kirschner, Sweller and Clark (2006). Educational Psychologist, 42(2): 99-107.
  26. Jennifer, R. 2002. Project-Based Instruction: Creating Excitement for Learning. By Request Series. Available online: Accessed in: 10th April 2019.
  27. Kalivas, J. H. (2008). A Service-Learning Project Based on a Research Supportive Curriculum Format in the General Chemistry Laboratory. Journal of Chemical Education, 85(10): 1410.
  28. Kokotsaki, D., Menzies, V. & Wiggins, A. (2016). Project-based Learning: a Review of the Literature. Improving Schools, 19(3): 267–277.
  29. Krathwohl, D. R. (2002). A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy: An Overview. Theory Into Practice 41(4): 212-218.
  30. Krauss, J. & Boss, S. (2013). Thinking through Project-Based Learning: Guiding Deeper Inquiry. Corwin, California, USA.
  31. Külcü, Ö.T. & Hürmüzlü, B. (2013). Archeo-Kid: A Project-based Learning Model (Establishing background for archaeology in childhood and adolescence). European Journal of Research on Education, 2013, Special Issue: Art in Education, 1-6.
  32. Lam, S.-F., Cheng, R. W.-y., & Choy, H. C. (2010). School Support and Teacher Motivation to Implement Project-based Learning. Learning and Instruction, 20(6): 487-497.
  33. Ocak, M.A. & Uluyol, Ç. (2010). Investigation of College Students’ Intrinsic Motivation in Project Based Learning”. International Journal of Human Sciences, 7(1): 1153-1169.
  34. Patton, M. (2012). Work that Matters: the Teacher’s Guide to Project-based Learning. London: Paul Hamlyn Foundation.
  35. Rodrigues, C.A., Bu, N. & Min, B. (2000). Learners Training Approach Preference: National Culture as a Determinant. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 7(1): 23-22.
  36. Stivers, J. (2010). Project Based Learning: A Dynamic Approach to Teaching in which Students Explore Real-world Problems and Challenges, Simultaneously Developing 21st Century Skills while Working in Small Collaborative Groups. Available online: Accessed in: 3rd March 2019.
  37. Syarifah, E. F., & Emiliasari, R. N. (2019). Project-Based Learning to Develop Student's Ability and Creativity in Writing Narrative Story. Indonesian EFL Journal, 5(1): 85-94.
  38. Thurley, S. (2005). Into the Future: Our Strategy for 2005--2010. Conservation Bulletin, 49: 26-37.
  39. Wurdinger, S., Haar, J., Hugg, R., & Bezon, J. (2007). A Qualitative Study using Project-based Learning in a Mainstream Middle School. Improving Schools, 10(2): 150-161.