Plagiarism is when someone acts to consider another person's work as his own. Duplicate publication, or self-plagiarism, occurs when an author reuses portions of his/her published work without providing appropriate references. This might be an identical research paper published in multiple journals or when the authors insert very limited modification to a previous paper. The journal utalizes some plagiarism-checking software (e.g., Turnitin) to check for plagiarism. A similarity index of up to 20% is tolarated assuming that it does not relfect a single direct quatation but rather a group of short joint vocabularies (usually common words used in research reports). In case of more than 20% of similarities, the authors are advised to revise their writing and resubmit their manuscripts. If palgiarism is dectected after publication, a full process of investigation is undertaken and the journal contacts the authors’ institutes or funding agencies.