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The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a phonological awareness skills training program in improving decoding skills of third grade students with reading disabilities. The initial sample included 40 students enrolled in the learning disabilities program in elementary schools in Oman. They were assessed for diagnosing those who have reading disabilities through adopting the procedures of the IQ-achievement discrepancy model. The Raven’s Matrices and a reading achievement test were administered to students. Then, 14 students among those diagnosed with reading disabilities were randomly distributed to an experimental and a control group. Participants in the experimental group received training in phonological awareness for 10 weeks whereas the control group participants did not. The participants of both groups were administered two tests in phonological awareness (PA) and decoding skills (DS) pre and post the training. Results of the study indicated that there were statistically significant differences between the experimental and control groups on the sub-tests of the PA and DS tests except for fluency in reading passages. However, a comparison of the pre and post scores of the experimental groups showed that they obtained significant gains in all sub scores following the training.