Main Article Content


The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the effectiveness of Twitter when used in conjunction with a non-traditional type of educational approach referred to as the “flipped classroom method” upon the academic achievement of 12th grade students and their learning motivation towards mathematics. The study used a quantitative approach, and the sample consisted of 48 students. The study was conducted during a three-week period in two public high schools in Abha, Saudi Arabia. The first hypothesis was that the use of Twitter would improve academic performance in mathematics. The second hypothesis was that learning in a flipped classroom via Twitter would lead to an improvement in math performance but that this improvement within the flipped classroom would differ across gender. The third hypothesis was that learning in a flipped classroom via Twitter would lead to more positive attitudes towards mathematics. The findings did not support the first or the second hypotheses; when used in the context of a flipped classroom approach, Twitter, did not improve academic achievement: F(1, 46) = .49, p = .486.  Improvement in academic achievement from pretest to posttest also did not differ across gender; F(1, 44) = .00, p = .963. However, the results did support the third hypothesis; within the flipped classroom, the improvement in motivation was stronger for girls than it was for boys; F(1, 22) = 51.32, p < .001.


Twitter flipped classroom academic achievement learning motivation

Article Details


  1. Abdurabb, T. K. (2014). Saudi Arabia has highest number of active Twitter users in the Arab world. Arab News. Re-trieved from
  2. Abo Galbh, M. (2015). The Effect of Flipped Classroom by Using Edmodo Website to Enhance Creative Thinking and Atti-tudes toward Biology Course in High School in Riyadh. (Master Thesis, IMSI University). Saudi Arabia.
  3. Aldaosary, F., & Al-masaad, A. (2017). Im-pact of Flipped Classroom on Academ-ic Achievement of Programming Learning in Computer Course for 10th grade students. International Journal of Educational Study, 41(3), 138-164.
  4. Alhamadi, A. (2017). The influence of so-cial media on Saudi graduate students: An explanatory case study of six Saudi graduate students studying in Ameri-can universities (Doctoral dissertation, Kansas State University). Retrieved from
  5. Al-harbi, Fawzia. (2017). The effectiveness of using the inverted learning strategy in developing self-learning skills and organizing the enrichment environ-ment from the point of view of gifted students. Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation, 4(16), 115-152.
  6. Almankory, A. (2019). To what extent do university students in Saudi Arabia find a social media tool (Twitter) useful in their respective learning environ-ments? (Doctoral dissertation, Durham University). Retrieved from
  7. Ambusaidi, A. & Al-Hosani, H. (2018). The Impact of Flipped Classroom Ap-proach in Acquiring Motivation to-wards Science Learning and Academic Achievements on Ninth-Grade Female Students. Humanities Journal, 32(8), 1570-1604.
  8. Anderson, S. (2011). The Twitter toolbox for educators. Teacher Librarian, 39, 27-30.
  9. Archambault, L., Wetzel, K., Foulger, T. S., & Williams, M. K. (2010). Professional Development 2.0: Transforming Teach-er Education Pedagogy with 21st Cen-tury Tools. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 27, 4-11.
  10. Asiri, A. (2018). Mathematics Olympiad com-petencies in textbooks: analyzing the con-tent of secondary school mathematics books in light of the basic competencies of the Mathematics Olympiad competition. Obeikan Company, Riadh.
  11. Batanero, C. & Borovcnik, M. (2016). Statis-tics and probability in high school. Rot-terdam: Sense Publishers.
  12. Batanero, C., & Díaz, C. (2012). Training teachers to teach probability: Reflec-tions and challenges. Chilean Journal of Statistics, 3(1), 3–13.
  13. Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day (pp. 120-190). Wash-ington DC: International Society for Technology in Education.
  14. Blessing, S., Blessing, J., & Fleck, B. (2012). Using Twitter to reinforce classroom concepts. Teaching of Psychology, 39(4), 268-271. doi:10.1177/009862831246 1484
  15. Buzzelli, A. A., Holdan, G., Lias, A. R., Ro-ta, D. R., & Evans, T. Z. (2019). Rethink-ing Twitter: Unique Characteristics of Twitter Render It an Instructional As-set. In M. Habib (Ed.), Advanced Online Education and Training Technologies (pp. 163-184). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. doi:10.4018/978-1-5225-7010-3.ch010
  16. Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (1963). Ex-perimental and quasi-experimental designs for Study. Chicago: Rand McNally.
  17. Carnell, L. (2008). The effect of a student-designed data collection project on atti-tudes toward statistics. Journal of Statis-tics Education, 16(1). Retrieved from:
  18. Carpenter, J. P., & Krutka, D. G. (2014). How and why educators use Twitter: A sur-vey of the field. Journal of Study on Tech-nology in Education, 46(4), 414-434. doi:10.1080/1539123.2014.925701
  19. Deaves, A., Grant, E., Trainor, K., & Jarvis, K. (2019). Students’ perceptions of the educational value of Twitter: a mixed-methods investigation. Study in Learn-ing Technology, 27.
  20. Draper, J. A., Buzzelli, A. A., & Holden, E. G. (2016). The pattern of use of Twitter in one accelerated, cohort-based doc-toral based program. International Jour-nal of Doctoral Studies, 11, 163-183. Re-trieved from Publications/3453
  21. Dunlap, J. C., & Lowenthal, P. R. (2009). Tweeting the night away: Using Twit-ter to enhance social presence. Journal of Information Systems Education, 20, 129-135.
  22. El Mourad, H. (2014). The Saudis are at the forefront among social media users. Arabian Retrieved from
  23. Evans, TZ. (2017). Twitter in the Higher Edu-cation Classroom: Exploring Perceptions of Engagement. (Doctoral Dissertation). USA: Robert Morris University
  24. Fredricks, J., McColskey, W., Meli, J., Mordi-ca, J., Montrosse, B., & Mooney, K. (2011). Measuring student engagement in upper elementary through high school: A description of 21 instru-ments. Issues & Answers Report, REL, 098. Retrieved from
  25. Fox, B. I., & Varadarajan, R. (2011). Use of Twitter to encourage interaction in a multi- campus pharmacy management course. American Journal of Pharmaceuti-cal Education, 75(5), 1-8.
  26. Fulton, K. (2012). Upside down and inside out : Flip your classroom to improve student learning. Learning & Leading with Technology, 39(8), 12–17.
  27. Galagan, P. (2009). Twitter as a learning tool. Really. T+D, 28-31.
  28. Gall, M. D., Gall, J. P., & Borg, W. R. (2006). Educational Study: An introduction (8th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  29. Gao, F., Luo, T., & Zhang, K. (2012). Tweet-ing for learning: A critical analysis of Study on microblogging in education published in 2008-2011. British Journal of Educational Technology, 43, 783-801. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01357.x
  30. Global Media Insight (GMI), (2018). Saudi Arabia Social Media Statistics 2018. Re-trieved from
  31. Hamdan, N., McKnight, P., McKnight, K., & Arfstrom, K. (2013). A review of flipped learning. Retrieved from:
  32. Harris, A. L., & Rea, A. (2009). Web 2.0 and virtual world technologies: A growing impact on IS education. Journal of In-formation Systems Education, 20(2), 137-144.
  33. Jacob, Bridgette. (2013). The Development of Introductory Statistics Students' Informal Inferential Reasoning and Its Relationship to Formal Inferential Reasoning. Un-published Thesis Dissertation, Syra-cuse University.
  34. Jones, G. (2005). Introduction. In G. Jones (Ed.), Exploring probability in school: challenges for teaching and learning (pp. 1-12). New York: Springer.
  35. Junco, R., Elavsky, C. M., & Heiberger, G. (2012). Putting Twitter to the test: As-sessing outcomes for student collabora-tion, engagement, and success. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44, 273–287. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01284.x
  36. Junco, R., Heiberger, G., & Loken, E. (2010). The effect of Twitter on college student engagement and grades. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2729.2010.00387.x
  37. Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons, 53. 59-68. doi:10.1016/ j.bushor.2009.09.003
  38. Ministry of Education (2019). Schools' da-tabase. Retrieved from
  39. Minocha, S., Schroeder, A., & Schneider, C. (2010). Role of the educator in social software initiatives in further and higher education: A conceptualisation and Study agenda. British Journal of Ed-ucational Technology, 42(6), 889-903. doi:10.1111/j.1467 8535.2010.01131.x
  40. Mohammed, M. (2012). Effectiveness of applications of potential distributions in the development of problem solving and decision-making among 12th grade students. Knowledgeable and read-ing journal, 133, 139-152.
  41. National Center for Assessment, (2019). Report of Students Results in Annual Test. Retrieved from:
  42. Nicholson, J., & Galguera, T. (2013). Inte-grating new literacies in higher educa-tion: A self-study of the use of Twitter in an education course. Teacher Educa-tion Quarterly, 40(3), 7-26.
  43. Nunnally, J. C. & Bernstein, I.H. (1994). Psy-chometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  44. Ozofor, N. (2015). Effects of two modes of Computer Aided Instruction on stu-dents’ achievement and interest in mathematics. International Journal of Education and Study, 3(1), 89-102.
  45. Pearson. (2013). Flipped learning in higher education. Retrieved from:
  46. Pyhältö, K., Toom, A., Stubb, J., & Lonka, K. (2012). Challenges of becoming a scholar: A study of doctoral students’ problems and well-being. International Scholarly Study Network Education, 12, 1-12. doi:10.5402/2012/934941
  47. Schroeder, A., Minocha, S., & Schneider, C. (2010). The strengths, weaknesses, op-portunities and threats of using social software in higher and further educa-tion teaching and learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 26(3), 159-174. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2729.2010.00347.x
  48. Stone, B. (2012): “Flip Your Classroom to Active Learning and Student Engage-ment”. Paper Presented at 28th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning. The Board of Regents the University of Wisconsin System, USA.
  49. Unakorn, P., & Klongkratoke, U. (2015). Effectiveness of flipped classroom to mathematics learning of grade 11 stu-dents. A Paper presented at the 21st & 22nd International Conference on Lan-guage, Education, and Humanities & Innovation. Retrieved from
  50. Van Vooren, C., & Bess, C. (2013). Teacher tweets improve achievement for eighth grade science students. Journal of Sys-temics, Cybernetics and Informatics, 11(1), 33-36.
  51. Vilchez, Manuel. (2016). An Investigation of the Effect of Using Twitter by High School Mathematics Students Learning Linear Equations in Algebra 1. (Doctoral Disser-tation). USA: Florida International University.
  52. Vohra, S. (2016). How social presence on Twit-ter impacts student engagement and learn-ing in a grade 8 mathematics classroom. Walden University. Retrieved from
  53. Wei, C., Chen, N., & Kinshuk. (2012). A model for social presence in online classrooms. Educational Technology Study & Development, 60(3), 529-545. doi:10.1007/s11423-012-9234-9
  54. Yakin, I., & Tinmaz, H. (2013). Using twit-ter as an instructional tool: A case study in higher education. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 12(4), 209-218.
  55. Yarbro, J., Arfstrom, K. M., McKnight, K., & McKnight, P. (2014). Extension of a re-view of flipped learning. Retrieved from:
  56. Yourechko, A. (2016). The effect of Twitter on secondary student engagement and academic performance. (Doctoral dis-sertation). Retrieved from:
  57. Zickuhr, K., & Rainie, L. (2014). Younger Americans’ reading habits and tech-nology use. Retrieved from hab-its-and-technology-use/