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The purpose of this study was to examine the structural relations between mastery and performance goal orientations, and their relations with self-efficacy, metacognition and achievement. Also, invariance across gender was tested. Four hundred three students (200 boys and 203 girls) from the United Arab Emirates University and Al Ain University participated in the study. Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) was administered to the sample in the classes. Only four subscales (form 13 originally included in MSLQ) were used. Alpha Cronbach estimates were adequate for each of the scales used in this study (all above 0.75). GPA scores were obtained from the students. SEM results indicated a good model fit to data for each of the two gender groups. The invariance test indicated that factor loadings were invariant across gender; however, the invariance of other parameters across gender (e.g., variances and covariances, regression weights, and residuals) was not strongly supported. Mastery orientation correlated with performance orientation for boys but not for girls. Mastery orientation had significant paths to self-efficacy, metacognition, and GPA for both genders. Performance orientation significantly predicted self-efficacy and metacognition for boys but did not for girls. Metacognition predicted achievement (GPA) for boys but not for girls. Self-efficacy predicted GPA for girls but not for boys. For girls, performance orientation had a negative link with GPA but no significant link for boys. The four constructs explained 29% of the variance in GPA scores for boys and 43% for girls. The results concerning male vs. female were interpreted and discussed within a socio-cultural context.