Modeling the Causal Relationships among Test Anxiety, Working Memory, and Academic Achievement of Primary Stage Students in Oman in the Light of the Processing Efficiency Theory

Sabry M. Abd-El-Fattah

Abstract


This study aimed at investigating the relationships among test anxiety, working memory, and academic achievement in the light of the processing efficiency theory. The sample of the study included 159 fifth graders (84 females and 75 males) distributed over three public elementary schools in the Sultanate of Oman. Results of the mean testing analysis showed that the participants had high levels of worry and emotionality as well as overall test anxiety (both worry and emotionality). The results of the structural equation modeling analysis showed that (1) worry and emotionality had negative effects on central executive, phonological loop, and visuo-spatial sketch pad; (2) emotionality had a negative effect on the visuo-spatial sketch pad, and (3) central executive, phonological loop, and visuo-spatial sketch pad had positive effects on academic achievement. The results of the mediation analysis showed that the central executive and the phonological loop mediated the relationship between worry and academic achievement, and that the central executive, phonological loop, and visuo-spatial sketch pad mediated the relationship between emotionality and academic achievement. The results of the moderation analysis showed that gender was not a moderator of the relationships among worry, emotionality, central executive, phonological loop, visuo-spatial sketch pad, and academic achievement.

 


Keywords


Test anxiety, working memory, academic achievement, structural equation modeling analysis, mediation analysis, moderation analysis.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jeps.vol7iss2pp238-255

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