Revision of Guilford Formula to Correct Item Difficulty for Guessing in Multiple Choice Test Items

Ahmad S. Audeh


The original Guilford formula for estimation of multiple choice item difficulty was based on a penalty for guessing. This penalty was originally based on completely random or blind guessing, which means that it is purely based on mathematical estimation and on significantly violated assumptions. While authentic and fair estimation is expected to be based on mixed scoring formula which adds another correction factor to integrate measurement theory with decision theory based on partial knowledge and risk- taking behavior. A new formula with two correction factors related to guessing, partial knowledge and risk-taking is presented in this paper. Further studies are suggested for reviewing the validation of the main assumptions of item theory models.



item difficulty, correction for guessing, risk-taking, multiple choice items, partial knowledge, scoring formula.

Full Text:




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Ahmad S. Audeh


This journal and its content is licensed under a Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International.

Flag Counter