Endocrine, Physiological and Histopathological Responses of Fish and their Larvae to Stress with Emphasis on Exposure to Crude Oil and Various Petroleum Hydrocarbons

A. Y. A. AL-Kindi, J.A. Brown, C.P. Waring

Abstract


Various endocrine and physiological responses of fish exposed to forceful physical and chemical stimuli are reviewed with emphasis on the effects of crude oils and their hydrocarbon constituents. The chemistry and toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons are examined and methods for experimental exposure of fish to crude oil and petroleum hydrocarbons are considered. A variety of blood-borne parameters recognized as reliable tools in determining the relative severity of stress in fish are reviewed. The effects of stress and petroleum hydrocarbons on endocrine responses including changes in plasma catecholamines, corticosteroids, and thyroid hormones are reviewed. The physiological responses: changes in plasma glucose, osmotic and ionic regulation, blood oxygen, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration are explored, and histopathological effects of crude oil on fish are reviewed. Recent studies of the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on fish larvae are considered and the increased sensitivity of the early life stages of fish are highlighted.


Keywords


science, applied science, basic science

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References


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