Main Article Content


The mineralogy of the Tertiary clay deposits in Makkah and Rabigh quadrangles was thoroughly investigated by X-ray diffraction and differential thermal and thermogravimetric analyses in addition to other techniques. Results show that the investigated samples are predominantly composed of montmorillonite (Ca++ and/or Mg++ rich variety) and kaolinite, associated with subordinate illite and minor chlorite. Mixed layer montmorillonite-illite is recorded only in two samples. The relative abundance of these minerals by X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the studied clay deposits are of three types. The first, which is the most common, is highly montmorillonitic, the second is made up of a mixture of montmorillonite followed by kaolinite and illite and the third is highly kaolinitic with some montmorillonite. Generally, kaolinite shows a southward increase in Makkah quadrangle while chlorite, as a minor component, shows a northward increase in Rabigh quadrangle.                                                 


Mineralogy Clay Deposits Kaolinite Montmorillonite-Illite and Makkah Quadrangle.

Article Details


  1. BEUTELSPACHER, H., and VAN DER MAREL, H.W., 1968. Atlas of electron microscopy of clay minerals and their admixtures. Elsevier, Amsterdam-London-New York.
  2. BROWN, G., and BRINDLEY, G.W., 1980. X-ray diffraction procedures for clay mineral identification. In: Crystal structures of clay minerals and their X-ray identification. Edited by Brindley, G. W. and Brown, G. Mineralog. Soc., London, pp. 305-360.
  3. EL ASKARY, M.A., 1983. Quantitative estimation of kaolinite and montmorillonite by thermal derivatography. Jour. Agric. Res., Tanta Univ., 9 ( 2 ): 546-561.
  4. ESTEP, P.A., 1977. Infrared spectroscopy. In: Zussman, J. (ed.), Physical methods in determinative mineralogy. Academic Press, London, pp. 529-604.
  5. FARMER, V.C., 1975. Infrared spectroscopy in mineral chemistry. In: Nicol, A. W.(ed), Physico-chemical methods of mineral analysis. Plenum Press, London, pp. 357-389.
  6. FOLK, R.L., 1980. Petrology of sedimentary rocks. Hemphill’s,Austin, Texas.
  7. FOLK, R.L., and WARD, W.C., 1957. Brazos River bar, a study in the significance of grain-size parameters. Jour. Sed. Petrol, 27: 3-27.
  8. GRIM, R.E., 1968. Clay Mineralogy. Mc Graw-Hill Book Company, New York.
  9. LYON, R.J., 1967. Infrared absorption spectroscopy. In: Zussman, J. ( ed. ), Physical methods in determinative mineralogy. Academic Press London.
  10. MIELENZ, R.C., KING, M.E. and SCHIELTZ, M.C., 1950. “Staining tests”, Rept. 7. American Petroleum Institute Project 49, Columbia University, New York.
  11. MOENKE, H., 1966. Mineral spektren, I and II. Berlin, Akad. Verlag.
  12. MOORE, T.A., and AL-REHAILI, M.H., 1989. Explanatory notes to the geologic map of the Makkah Quadrangle, sheet 21D, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. DGMR, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
  13. PIERCE, J.W., and SIEGEL, F.R.,1969. Quantification in clay mineral studies of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Jour. Sed. Petrol., 39: 187-193.
  14. POWDER DIFFRACTION FILE 1984. Inorganic phases, JCPDS. Inter. Center for diffraction data, Pennsylvania, USA.
  15. TAJ, R.J., EL ASKARY, M.A., SAAD, N.A. and BASYONI, M.H., 2001a. Sedimentology, mineralogy, chemistry and industrial applications of argillaceous rocks in some localities in Makkah and Rabigh quadrangles, west central Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia. Sponsored research study by King Abdulaziz University, Project No. 203/419.
  16. TAJ, R.J., EL ASKARY, M.A., SAAD, N.A. and BASYONI, M.H., 2001b. Economic potentiality of the Tertiary clay deposits in Makkah and Rabigh quadrangles, west-central Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia. 5th Int. Conf. On Geochemistry, Alex. Univ., Egypt, 2: 169-183.
  17. TAJ, R.J., EL ASKARY, M.A., SAAD, N.A. and BASYONI, M.H., 2002b. Mineralogical investigation and some sedimentary phenomena of Ubhur Formation, north Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Jour. K.A.U., Mar. Sci., (in press).
  18. TAJ, R.J., SAAD, N.A., EL ASKARY, M.A. and BASYONI, M.H., 2002a . Geochemistry and origin of the Tertiary clay deposits in Makkah and Rabigh quadrangles, west-central Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia. Acta Min.-Pet., Szeged, (in press).
  19. TODOR, D.N., 1976. Thermal analysis of minerals. Abacus Press, Tunbridge Wells, Kent.
  20. VAN DER MAREL, H.W., and BEUTELSPACHER, H., 1976. Atlas of infrared spectroscopy of clay minerals and their admixtures. Amsterdam, Elsevier.
  21. WELTON, J.E.,1950. SEM Petrology Atlas. Methods in exploration series, AAPG, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
  22. WHITR, W.B., 1975. The carbonate minerals. In: Farmer, V. C. ( ed. ). The infrared spectra of minerals. Mineral Soc., London.