Petroleum Hydrocarbon Residues in Surficial Sediment Samples from Aden City Coasts, Yemen

Ibrahim Al-Akhaly, Nabil Al-Shwafi, Basem Al-Matari, Eman I.Siam

Abstract


The environmental quality along Aden coasts is affected by the anthropogenic pressure of Aden city. Field work has been carried out to investigate the occurrence of petroleum pollution along these coasts. To determine the status of aliphatic hydrocarbon (AH) (n-C10 to n-C34) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution in surface sediments, twenty seven surface sediment samples were collected in July and December 2014 and March 2015 and analysed for AHs and PAHs by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine their levels and sources. Concentrations of AHs ranged from 6.25 µg/g at station 5 (Goldmoor) to 41.05 µg/g at station 7 (Al Ghadir coast) with an average of 16.49 µg/g. Concentrations of PAHs were in the range between 0.37 µg/g at station 5 (Goldmoor) and 16.30 µg/g at station 9 (Oil Harbor) with an average of 7.38 µg/g. The study showed that the levels of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) in coastal sediments are low and within the allowed limits. The major sources of the pollution were petrogenic in origin, based on the indices of AHs and PAHs. This pollution is a result of localized oil operations and/or heavy ship traffic in the Gulf of Aden. The results will be used to assess the ecosystem quality. Environmental control is recommended to reduce the marine pollution of Aden coasts.


Keywords


Aden; Coastal sediments; Gulf of Aden; Petroleum pollution; Yemen

Full Text:

PDF

References


Li, F., Lin, J.Q., Liang, Y.Y., Gan, H.Y., Zeng, X.Y., Duan, Z.P., Liang, K., Liu, X., Huo, Z.H., and Wu, C.H. Coastal surface sediment quality assessment in Leizhou Peninsula (South China Sea) based on SEM-AVS analysis, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2014, 84, 424-436.

Kapsimalis, V., Panagiotopoulos, I.P., Talagani, P., Hatzianestis, I., Kaberi, H., Rousakis, G., Kanellopoulos, T.D., and Hatiris, G.A. Organic contamination of surface sediments in the metropolitan coastal zone of Athens, Greece: sources, degree, and ecological risk, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2014, 80, 312-324.

Wu, Y., Zhang, J., Mi, T., and Li, B. Occurrence of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the core sediments of the Yellow Sea, Marine Chemistry, 2001, 76, 1-15.

Gao, X., and Chen, S. Petroleum pollution in surface sediments of Daya Bay, South China, revealed by chemical fingerprinting of aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 2008, 80, 95-102.

Volkman, J.K., Holdsworth, D.G., Neill, G.P., and Bavor, H.J. Identification of natural, anthropogenic and petroleum hydrocarbons in aquatic sediments, The Science of Total Environment, 1992, 112, 203-219.

NRC, Oil in the Sea: Inputs, Fates, and Effects, National Academy Press, Washington DC. 2003, p. 265.

Asia, L., Mazouz, S., Guiliano, M., Doumeq, P., and Mille, G. Occurrence and distribution of hydrocarbons in surface sediments form Marseille Bay (France), Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2009, 58, 424-455.

Maioli, O.L.G., Rodrigues, K.C., Knoppers, B.A., and Azevedo, D.A. Distribution and sources of polyciclic aromatic hydrocarbon in surface sediments from two Brazilian Estuarine Systems, Journal of Brazilian Chemical Society, 2010, 21(8), 1543-1551.

Macias-Zamora, J.V. Distribution of hydrocarbon in recent marine sediments off the coast of Baja California. Environmental Pollution, 1996, 92(1), 45-53.

WHO, Guidelines for Indoor Air, Selected Pollutants; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, 2010, p. 289.

Ahmed, M.M., Doumenq, P., Awaleh, M.O., Syaktib, A.D., Asia, L., and Chiron, S. Levels and sources of heavy metals and PAHs in sediment of Djibouti-city (Republic of Djibouti), Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2017, 120, 340-346.

Nascimento, R.A., Almeida, M., Escobar, N.C.F., Ferreira, S.L.C., Mortatti, J., and Queiroz, A.F.S. Sources and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organic matter in surface sediments of an estuary under petroleum activity influence, Todosos Santos Bay, Brazil, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2017, 119, 223-230.

Ramzi, A., Habeeb, R.K., Gireeshkumar, T.R., Balachandran, K.K., and Chandramohanakumar, N. Dynamics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of cochin estuary, India. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2017, 114, 1081-1087.

Mostafa, A.R., Barakat, A.O., Qian, Y., and Wade, T.L. Composition, distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the western harbour of Alexandria, Egypt. J. Soils Sediments, 2003, 3, 173-179.

MFW, Guide to fishes, Ministry of Fish Wealth, Marine Science and Resources center, Yemen, 2001.

Heba, H.M.A., Maheub, A.R.S., and Al- Shawafi, N. Oil pollution in Gulf of Aden/ Arabian Sea Coasts of Yemen, Bulletin of National Institute OceaWenink, C.R., and Nelson-Smith, A. Coastal oil pollution study for the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea coast of the Republic of Egypt, 1979, IMCO, London.

Dicks, B. Pollution. In: Red Sea (Key Environments). Edited by Edwards. A.J. and S.M. Head. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1987, p. 44.

DouAbul, A.A.Z., and Heba, H.M.A. Investigations following a fish kill in Bab el-Mandeb, Red Sea during November 1994. Report submitted to Environmental Protection Council (EPC) (Dutch Support Project to Technical Secretariat EPC, Yemen) 1995, p. 105.

DouAbul, A.A.Z., and Al-Shwafi, N.A. Petroleum hydrocarbons in the Red Sea coast of Yemen. Paper accepted in the International Conference on the Biology of Coastal Environment (ICBCE 97), 1997, Bahrain, 4-7 April 1997.

Al-Alimi, A.A. Assessment of sources and levels of persistent organic pollutant (POPS) and trace metals in the coastal environment of Hadhramout Governorate, Yemen. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Science, Alexandria, Egypt. 2008, p. 243.

Grimalt, J., Albaiges, J. Al-Saad, H.T., and DouAbul, A.A.Z. n-Alkane distribution in surface sediments from the Arabian Gulf ; Naturwissenschaften, 1985, 72, 35-38.

Al-Shwafi, N.A. Hydrographical Studies on the Gulf of Aden around Aden City, Yemen, Nature Environment and Pollution Technology, An International Quarterly Scientific Journal, 2012, 11 (3), 519-522.

UNEP/IOC/IAEA, Determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments. In: Reference Methods for Marine Pollution Studies, 1992, Nairobi: UNEP. p. 75.

Botsou, F., Hatzianestis, I., Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marine sediments of the Hellenic coastal zone, eastern Mediterranean: levels,sources and toxicological significance, Journal Soils Sediments, 2012, 12, 265–277.

Farrington, J.W., Frew, N. M., Gachwend, P.M., and Tripp, B.W. Hydrocarbons in cores of northwestern Atlantic Coastal and continental margin sediments, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 1977, 1, 71-79.

Folk, R.I. Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks, Hemphill Publishing Co. 1974, Austin, Texas.

Riley, J.P. and Chester, R. Introduction to marine chemistry; Academic Press, 1981, London, pp. 465.

Burns, K.A., Villeneuve, J.P., Anderlini, V.C., and Fowler, S.W. Survey of tar, hydrocarbonand metal pollution in the coastal waters of Oman, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 1982, 13, 204-207.

Steinhauer, S.S., and Boehm, P.D. The composition and distribution of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in nearshore sediments, river sediments and coastal peat of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea: implications for detecting anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs. Marine Environmental Resources, 1992, 33, 223–253.

Zaghden, H., Kallel, M., Elleuch, B., Oudot, J., and Saliot, A. Sources and distribution of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of Sfax, Tunisia, Mediterranean Sea. Marine Chemistry, 2007, 105, 70-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2006.12.016.

Commendatore, M.G., Nievas, M.L., Amin, O., and Esteves, J.L. Sources and distribution of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in coastal sediments from the Ushuaia Bay (Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia, Argentina). Marine Environmental Resources, 2012, 74, 20-31.

Matsumoto, G., and Hanya, T. Comparative study on organic constituent in polluted and unpolluted inland aquatic environment. Features of hydrocarbons for polluted and unpolluted waters, Water Resources, 1981, 15, 217-224.

Frysinger, G.S., Gaines, R.B., Xu, L., and Reddy, C.M. Resolving the unresolved complex mixture in petroleum-contaminated sediments, Environmental Science Technology, 2003, 37, 1653-1662.

Commendatore, M.G., and Esteves, J.L. Natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in sediments from the Chubut River (Patagonia, Argentina), Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2004, 48, 910-918.

Jeng, W.L. Higher plant n-alkane average chain length as an indicator of petrogenic hydrocarbon pollution in marine sediments, Marine Chemistry, 2006, 102, 242-251.

Maioli, O.L.G., Rodrigues, K.C., Knoppers, B.A., and Azevedo, D.A. Pollution source evaluation using petroleum and aliphatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from two Brazilian estuarine systems. Organic Geochemistry, 2010, 41, 970-996.

Kucuksezgin, F., Pazi, I., and Gonul, L.T. Marine organic pollutants of the Eastern Aegean: aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Candarli Gulf surficial sediments, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2012, 64, 2569–2575.

Vaezzadeh, V., Zakaria, M.P., Shau-Hwai, A.T., Ibrahim, Z.Z., Mustafa, S., Abootalebi- Jahromi, F., Masood, N., Magam, S.M., and Alkhadher, S.A. Forensic Investigation of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in the Sediments From Selected Mangrove Ecosystems in the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2015.

Wang, M., Wang, C., Hu, X., Zhang, H., He, S., and Lv, S. Distributions and sources of petroleum, aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments from Bohai Bay and its adjacent river, China, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2015, 90, 88-94.

Readman, J.W., Fillmann, G., Tolosa, I., Bartocci, J., Villeneuve, J.P., Cattini, C., and Mee, L.D. Petroleum and PAH contamination of the Black Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2002, 44, 48-62.

Baumard, P., Budzinski, H., and Garrigues, P. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and mussels of the western Mediterranean Sea, Environmental Toxicology Chemistry, 1998, 17, 765-776.

DouAbul, A.A.Z., Al-Saad, H.T., and Darmoian, S.A. Distribution of petroleum residues in surficial sediments from Shatt Al-Arab river and the north-west region of the Arabian Gulf, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 1984, 15, 198-200.

Al-Shwafi, N.A. Distribution of Aliphatic and Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Surficial Sediments from the Red Sea of Yemen. Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Marine Science, 2003, 14, 89-97.

Zakaria, M.P., Takada, H., Tsutsumi, S., Ohno, K., Yamada, J., Kouno, E., and Kumata, H. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rivers and estuaries in Malaysia: a widespread input of petrogenic PAHs, Environmental Science Technology, 2002, 36, 1907-1918.

Stout, S.A., Uhler, A.D., and Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D. Comparative evaluation of background anthropogenic hydrocarbons in surficial sediments from nine urban waterway, Environmental Science Technology, 2004, 38, 2987-2994.

Yunker, M.B., Macdonald, R.W., Vingarzan, R., Mitchell, R.H., Goyette, D., and Sylvestre, S. PAHs in the Fraser River basin: a critical appraisal of PAH ratios as indicators of PAH source and composition, Organic Geochemistry, 2002, 33, 489-515.

Li, G., Xia, X., Yang, Z., Wang, R., and Voulvoulis, N. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, China, Environmental Pollution, 2006, 144, 985-993.

Gomes, A.O., and Azevedo, D.A. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in tropical recent sediments of Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil, Journal of Brazilian Chemistry Society, 2003, 14, 358–368.

Tongo, I., Ezemonye, L., and Akpeh, K. Levels, distribution and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Oviariver, southern Nigeria, Journal of Environmental Chemistry Engineering, 2017, 5, 504-512.

Mostafa, A.R., Wade, T.L., Sweet, S.T., Al-Alimi, A.A. and Barakat, A.O. Distribution and characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Hadhramout coastal area, Gulf of Aden, Yemen, Journal of Marine Systems, 2009, 78, 1-8.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/squjs.vol24iss1pp47-56

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Ibrahim Al-Akhaly, Nabil Al-Shwafi, Basem Al-Matari, Eman I.Siam

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

SQUJS 2017-CC BY-ND

This journal and its content is licensed under a Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International.

Flag Counter