Synthesis of Pullulan-Mediated Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) and their Antimicrobial Activities

Yusra Al-Owasi, Abdulkhadir Elshafie, Nallusamy Sivakumar, Saif Al-Bahry

Abstract


The synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), using plant extracts, bacteria, fungi and yeasts, and their   antimicrobial activities have been widely investigated and well documented. However, pullulan AgNPs and their antimicrobial activities have not received much attention. The objective of this study was to synthesize pullulan AgNPs, characterize them, and test their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Pullulan was extracted from Aureobasidium mangrovei isolated from Oman and, using UV-Vis spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), found to be identical to the commercial pullulan obtained from Sigma, USA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that most of the synthesized particles were poly-dispersed, irregular in shape, and most were spherical with an average size of 9.76 nm. Pullulan-mediated AgNPs were found to have antibacterial activities, and the ANOVA test showed that there were no significant differences between AgNO3, Pullulan and pullulan-mediated AgNPs for all the bacteria tested. Pullulan-mediated nanoparticles were found to have antifungal activity against Curvularia lunata, Fusarium incarnatum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium sp. The ANOVA test also revealed that there was a significant difference in antifungal activity between pullulan and pullulan-mediated AgNPs, pullulan-mediated nanoparticles having shown a higher inhibitory activity than pullulan. Pullulan and pullulan-mediated nanoparticles could be used in the food industry and are safer than silver nitrates.


Keywords


Pullulan; Pullulan-mediated silver nanoparticles; Antibacterial and antifungal activities; Aureobasidium mangrovei.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Rauwel, P., Küünal, S., Ferdov, S. and Rauwel, E. A review on the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their morphologies studied via TEM. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2015, 2015, 682749.

Pinto, R.J.B., Almedia, A., Fernandes, S.C., Freire, C.S., Silvestre, A.J., Neto, C.P. and Trindade, T. Antifungal activity of transparent nanocomposie thin films of pullulan and silver against Aspergillus niger. Colloids and Surfaces B Biointerfaces, 2013, 103,143-148.

Awwad, Akl. M., Salem, N.M. and Abdeen, A.O. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using carbo leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity. International Journal of Industrial Chemistry, 2013, 4, 29.

Krishnaraj, C., Jagan, E.G., Rajasekar, S., Selvakumar, P., Kalaichelvan, P.T. and Mohan, N. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Acalypha indica leaf extracts and its antibacterial activity against water borne pathogens. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 2010, 76, 50-55.

Naqvi, S.Z.H, Kiran, U. and Ali, M.I. Combined efficacy of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles and different antibiotics against multidrug-resistant bacteria. International journal of Nanomedicine, 2013, 8, 3187-3195.

Kanmani, P., and Lim, S.T. Synthesis and characterization of pullulan-mediated silver nanoparticles and its antimicrobial activities. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2013, 97, 421-428.

Nasr, S., Mohammadimehr, M., Vaghei, M.G., Amoozegar, M.A. and Fazeli, S.A.S. Aureobasidium mangrovei sp. nov., an ascomycetes species recovered from Hara protected forests in the Persian Gulf, Iran. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 2018, 111, 1697-1705.

Bender, H. and Wallenfels, K Untersuchungen an Pullulan. II. Spezifischer Abbau durch ein bakterielles Enzym. Biochem Z, 1961, 334, 79-95.

Leathers, T.D. Pullulan. Biopolymers Online. 2005.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/3527600035.bpol6001/full

Choudhury, A.R., Saluja, P. and Prasad, G.S. Pullulan production by an osmotolerant Aureobasidium pullulans RBF-4A3 isolated from flowers of Casesuliaaxillaris. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2010, 83, 1547-1552.

Pollock, T.J., Thorne, L. and Armentrout, R.W. Isolation of new Aureobasidium strains that produce high-molecular –weight pullulan with reduced pigmentation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 1991, 58, 377-883.

Kang, J.X., Chen, X.J., Chen, W.R., Li, M.S., Fang, Y., Li, D.S., Ren, Y.Z. and Liu, D.Q. Enhanced production of pullulan in Aureobasidium pullulans by new process of genome shuffling. Process Biochemistry, 2010, 46, 792-795.

Yuen, S. Pullulan and its applications.‎ Process Biochemistry, 1974, 9-7, 9.

Cheng, K.C., Demirci, A. and Catchmark, J.M. Pullulan: biosynthesis, production, and applications. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2011, 92, 29-44.

Prasongsuk, S. Pullulan production by tropical isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2006, 4(1), 55-61.

Iyer, A., Mody, K. and Jha, B. Biosorption of heavy metals by a marine bacterium. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2005, 50, 340-343.

Coseri, S., Spatareanu, A., Sacarescu, L., Rimbu, C., Suteu, D., Spirk, S. and Harabagiu, V. Green synthesis of the silver nanoparticles mediated by pullulan and 6-carboxypullulan. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2015, 116, 9-17.

Ravella, S.R., Quiñones, T.S., Retter, A., Heiermann, M., Amon, T. and Hobbs, P.J. Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production by a novel strain of yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2010, 82, 728-732.

Mishra, B. and Vuppu S. A Study on downstream processing for the production of pullulan by Aureobasidium pullulans-SB-01 from the fermentation broth. Research Journal of Recent Sciences, 2013, 2, 16-19.

Morsy, M.K., Khalaf, H.H., Sharoba, A.M., El-Tanahi H.H. and Cutter, C.N. Incorporation of essential oils and nanoparticles in pullulan films to control foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry products. Journal of Food Science, 2014, 79, 675-84.

Balashanmugam, P., Balakumaran, M.D., Murugan, R., Dhanapal, K. and Kalaichelvan, P.T. Phytogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles, optimization and evaluation of in vitro antifungal activity against human and plant pathogens. Microbiological Research, 2016, 192, 52-64.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/squjs.vol24iss2pp88-94

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Yusra Al-Owasi, Abdulkhadir Elshafie, Nallusamy Sivakumar, Saif Al-Bahry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

SQUJS 2017-CC BY-ND

This journal and its content is licensed under a Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International.

Flag Counter