Nutritional Value of Vegetable Wastes as Livestock Feed

Osman Mahgoub, Hafidh Al-Mahrouqi, Sadeq Al-Lawati, Rabea Al-Muqbali

Abstract


A study was carried out to evaluate the nutritional value of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) to determine its potential use for feeding livestock in Oman. Spirulina was grown in wooden cubicles and harvested after 10 days. One batch of spirulina was dried by centrifugation (CS) and the other was dried in an oven without centrifugation (NCS). Samples were analyzed for dry matter (DM) and proximate chemical components. An in vitro assessment was carried out to measure gas production and in vitro DM degradability of spirulina. The DM was 56.1 and 57.1% in CS and NCS, respectively. The proximate composition for CS and NCS as a percentage of DM, respectively was: 60.8 and 62.5 for crude protein (CP); 0.97 and 1.05 for Ether extract (EE); 6.35 and 7.55 for ash. The CS and NCS contained: 0.25 and 0.37% DM Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) and 1.03 and 1.92 % DM Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), respectively. The gross energy (cal/g DM) was 5730 and 5629 in CS and NCS, respectively. The CS produced more in vitro gas (73 and 71 ml/200mg DM) from 12 hr until the end of the experimental period (96 hr) compared to the NCS (51 and 48 ml/200mg DM), respectively. The CS had significantly higher metabolizable energy (ME) (approximately 12 MJ/kg DM) than NCS (about 9 MJ/kg DM). CS had significantly higher (81 and 79%) Organic Matter Digestibility (OMD) than NCS (61 and 58%). The CS had significantly higher Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) (1.7 and 1.6 µmol) than NCS (1.2 and 1.1 µmol). It was concluded that spirulina is an excellent source of protein and can be used after drying as a potential animal feed. There was little effect of the method of drying of spirulina on its chemical composition or digestibility. 


Keywords


Oman; Spirulina; Chemical composition; In vitro digestibility

Full Text:

PDF

References


Castenholz, R.W. Subsection III, Order Osciilatoriales. In: J. T. Stanley, M. P. Bryant, N. Pfenning and J.G. Holt (Eds.). Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 1989, 3,1771-1775.

Salleh, B. Pengenalan alam tumbuhan. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur, 1987, 47-59.

Richmond, A. Spirulina. In: Micro-algal Biotechnology. Borowitzka, M. A. and Borowitzka, L. Y. (Eds.), p 85-101. Cambridge, Cambridge Univ. Press. U.K., 1988.

Vonshak, A., Kancharaksa, N., Bunnag, B. and Tanticharoen, M. Role of light and photosynthesis on the acclimation process of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis to salinity stress. Journal of Applied Phycology, 1996), 8(2), 119-124.

Azov, Y. and Shelef, G. The effect of pH on the performance of the high-rate oxidation ponds. Water Science Technology, 1987, 19(12), 381-383.

Talbot, P. and De la Noue, J. Tertiary treatment of wastewater with Phormidium bohneri (Schmidle) under various light and temperature conditions. Water Research, 1993, 27(1), 153-159.

Lau, P.S., Tam, N.F.Y. and Wang, Y.S. Effect of algal density on nutrient removal from primary settled wastewater. Environmental Pollution, 1995, 89, 56-66.

Abdel-Daim, M.M., Abuzead, S.M.M. and Halawa, S.M. Protective Role of Spirulina platensis against Acute Deltamethrin-Induced Toxicity in Rats. PLoS ONE, 8(9), e72991, 2013,

http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072991.

Belay, A. The potential application of Spirulina (Arthrospira) as a nutritional and therapeutic supplement in health management, Review. Journal of the American Nutraceutical Association, 2002, 5, 27-48.

Khan. Z., Bhadouria, P. and Bisen, P.S. Nutritional and therapeutic potential of Spirulina. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 2005, 6, 373-379. http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138920105774370607.

Holman, B.W.B. and Malau‐Aduli, A.E.O. Spirulina as a livestock supplement and animal feed. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 2013, 97(4), 615-623.

Panjaitan, T., Quigley, S.P., McLennan, S.R. and Poppi, D.P. Effect of the concentration of Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) algae in the drinking water on water intake by cattle and the proportion of algae bypassing the rumen. Animal Production Science, 2010, 50, 405-409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AN09194.

Kulpys, J., Paulauskas, E., Pilipavicius, V. and Stankevicius, R. Influence of cyanobacteria Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis biomass additive towards the body condition of lactation cows and biochemical milk indexes.

Agronomy Research, 2009, 7, 823-835.

Simkus, A., Oberauskas, V., Laugalis, J., Zelvyte, R., Monkeviciene, I., Sedervicius, A., Simkiene, A. and Pauliukas, K. The effect of weed Spirulina Platensis on the milk production in cows. Veterinarija ir Zootechnika, 2007, 38, 60.

Panjaitan, T., Quigley, S.P., McLennan, S.R., Swain A.J. and Poppi, D.P. Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) algae supplementation increases microbial protein production and feed intake and decreases retention time of digesta in the rumen of cattle. Animal Production Science, 2014, 55(4) 535-543.

Bezerra, L.R., Silva, A.M.A., Azevedo, S.A., Mendes,R.S., Mangueira, J.M. and Gomes, A.K.A. Performance of Santa Ineˆs lambs submitted to the use of artificial milk enriched with Spirulina platensis. Cieˆncia Animal Brasileira, 2010, 11, 258-263.

EL-Sabagh, M.R., Abd Eldaim, M.A., Mahboub, D.H. and Abdel-Daim. M. Effects of Spirulina Platensis algae on growth performance, antioxidative status and blood metabolites in fattening lambs. Journal of Agricultural Science, 2014, 6( 3), ISSN 1916-9752 (Print) ISSN 1916-9760 (Online).

Shimkiene, A., Bartkevichiute, Z., Chernauskiene, J., Shimkus, A., Chernauskas, A., Ostapchuk, A. and Nevitov, M. The influence of Spirulina platensis and concentrates on lambs’ growth. Zhivotnov’dni Nauki , 2010, 47, 9-14.

Tompkins, J., De Ville, M.M., Day, J.G. and Turner, M.F. Culture collection of algae and protozoa. Catalogue of Strains, (6th Edition). CCAP, Ambleside. 208 pp. 1995. [accessed Jun 25 2018].

Danesi, E.D.G., Rangel-Yagui, C.O., de Carvalho J.C.M. and Sato, S. An investigation of effect of replacing nitrate by urea in the growth and production of chlorophyll by Spirulina platensis. Biomass and Bioenergy, 2002, 23, 261-269.

The Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC.), 15thEdn. Washington, DC, USA. 2000.

Roberston, J.B. and Van Soest, P.J. The detergent system of analysis. In: James, W.P.T., Theander, O. (Eds.). The Analysis of Dietary Fiber in Food. Marcel Dekker, NewYork,USA,1981, 123-158.

Van Soest, P.J., Roberston, J.B. and Lewis, B.A. Methods for dietary fibre NDF and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science,1991,74, 3583-3597.

Menke, K.H. and Steingass, H. Estimation of the energetic feed value from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Animal Research and Development, 1988, 28, 7-55.

Getachew, G., Makkar, H.P.S. and Becker, K. Stoichiometric relationship between short chain fat acids and in vitro gas production in presence and polyethyleneglycol for tannin containing browses. European Federation of Animal Science (EAAP) Satellite Symposium, 1999.

Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS). Version 16, SPSS Inc., Illinois, USA. 2007.

Habib M.A.B., Parvin, M., Huntington, T.C. and Hasan M.R. A Review on Culture, Production and Use of Spirulina as Food for Humans and Feeds for Domestic Animals and Fish. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular. No. 1034 FAO, Rome, 2008, pp. 33.

Sasson, A. Micro Biotechnologies: Recent Developments and Prospects for Developing Countries. BIOTEC Publication 1/2542, 1997, pp. 11-31. Place de Fontenoy, Paris. France. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Kamalak, A., Canbolat, O., Gurbuz Y. and Ozay, O. Comparison of in vitro gas production technique with in situ nylon bag technique to estimate dry matter degradation. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 2005, 50(2) 60-67.

Robinson, P.H. and Getachew. G. University of California CE: A Practical Gas Production Technique to Determine the Nutritive Value of Forages: The UC Davis Approach, 2000 (Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265997062_UC_CE_A_Practical_Gas_Production_Technique_to_Determine_the_Nutritive_Value_of_Forages_The_UC_Davis_Approach [accessed Jun 06 2018].

Tobias Marino, C., Hector, B., Mazza Rodrigues, P.H., Oliveira Borgatti, L.M., Marques Meyer, P., Alves da Silva, E.J. and Ørskov, E.R. Characterization of vegetables and fruits potential as ruminant feed by in vitro gas production technique. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 2010, 22, Article #168. Last accessed 18.06.2017.from http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd22/9/mari22168.htm




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/squjs.vol24iss2pp71-77

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Osman Mahgoub, Hafidh Al-Mahrouqi, Sadeq Al-Lawati, Rabea Al-Muqbali

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

SQUJS 2017-CC BY-ND

This journal and its content is licensed under a Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International.

Flag Counter