Main Article Content


From an environmental viewpoint, the prevailing health problems must be a “first priority” in all major development projects. Public water supply provides only 36% of domestic water. Disinfection of public water supply from the south well field is essential to avoid health problems. About 60% of the drinking water sold by ‘hygienic’ stations is of questionable quality. Expansion and upgrading in hospitals, pharmacies and industries (waste producers) will have an immediate impact on the amount of hazardous waste that will have to be disposed of. To achieve a sustainable urban development and to avoid environment/resources degradation, care should be taken now to monitor and improve handling and management of hazardous waste. Initiating management programs for reducing or preventing the generation of waste during production processes or other operations would be the first step to an economically and environmentally sound way of dealing with hazardous wastes. As complete elimination cannot be realized, ways to recycle the wastes should be sought. Major air pollutants in Sana’a include dust and SPM, carbon monoxide, photochemical oxidants, hydrogen sulfide and ammonia, sulfur oxides and hydrocarbons. The main sources of pollution in the cities are the mobile sources. The emissions of gases from oil consumption are exceeding the permissible level and it is essential that the gases be monitored, at least in the congested areas of the cities. Integration of environmental concerns with economic growth in Yemen should occur at the planning stage, adopting a positive approach and focusing on improvement in the health and welfare of the residents of the program area. Mitigating measures relating to the protection of the urban environment and improving public health must be primary objectives of EIA investigation for any upgrading project within urban areas and any other projects impacting on an urban environment.




Urban Development Sana’a Environment Health Water supply.

Article Details


  1. AL ERYANI, M., BA-ISSA A., ALSHWIBI, Y., and BA-BAGI, A (Editors). 1991. Groundwater Pollution in the Sana’a Basin - A preliminary appraisal, Environmental Protection Council, Sana’a. Yemen.
  2. ALDERWISH, A.M. and DOTTRIDGE, J., 1999. Urban Recharge and its Influence on Groundwater Quality in Sana’a, Yemen. In: Groundwater in the Urban Environment: Selected City Profiles, Volume 21 of the International Contribution to Hydrogeology, eds. Chilton J., A.A. Balkem, Rotterdam, The Netherlands: 85-90.
  3. AL-HAMDI, M., 1994. Groundwater Pollution due to Domestic Waste Water in the Sana’a City Area. MSc. thesis no. EE 138, IHE, Delft, the Netherlands.
  4. ASSOCIATED CONSULTING ENGINEERS, BURNS & MCDONNELL INTERNATIONAL 1993. Fourth Urban Development Project, Municipal Environmental Component. Phase I, Final Report. Overview Of Existing Waste Management Systems. MHUP. Yemen.
  5. BROCKERHOFF, M., and BRENNAN, E., 1998. The Poverty of Cities in Developing Regions. Popul Dev Rev; 24: 75-114.
  6. CARL BRO INTERNATIONAL ALS., 1998. Environmental Assessment. Second Review Draft. Sana’a Emergency Power Project. Public Electricity Corporation. ROY.
  7. COHEN, B. 2006. Urbanization in Developing Countries: Current Trends, Future Projections, and Key Challenges for Sustainability. Technology in Society, 28: 63-80
  8. DAR AL-HANDASAH., 1999. Sana’a 1 Environmental Impact Assessment. Sana’a Water Supply and Sanitation Project. NWSA, ROY.
  9. EDWORTHY, K.J., 1991. Environmental Aspects of Water Management in Northern Yemen. Technical Report. Technical Secretariat of the High Council for Water. UNDP/DTCD Project Yem/88/001.
  10. FOPPEN, J.W., HOOGEVEEN, R., WIESENEKKER, H., ALHAIMY, I and Ali K.Z. 1996. Hydrochemistry of the Sana’a Basin and Microbiology of the Groundwater below Sana’a. SAWAS Technical Report No. 13. TNO/NWSA.
  11. HASKONING ROYAL DUTCH ENGINEERS and ARCHITECTS., 1991. Hazardous Waste in the Republic of Yemen. Technical Final Report. Support to the Secretariat of the Environmental Protection Council. Yemen.
  12. JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency). 2007. Study For Water Resources Management and Rural Water Supply Improvement. Water Resources Management Action Plan for Sana’a Basin. Draft Final Main Report. National Water Resources Authority, Ministry of Water and Environment. Yemen.
  13. KRUSEMAN, G.P., 1996. Sources for Sana’a Water Supply (SAWAS). Final Technical Report and Executive Summary. NWSA/TNO. Netherlands/Yemen.
  14. NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL., 2003. Cities Transformed: Demographic Change and its Implications In The Developing World. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
  15. ONIBOKUN, A.G., 1999. Managing the Monster: Urban Waste and Governance in Africa. Ottawa: International Development Research Center.
  16. SATTERTHWAITE, D., 1997. Urban Poverty: Reconsidering its Scale and Nature. IDS Bull; 28: 9-23.
  17. NORRA, 1995, 2nd Ed. Intermediate Work Report, Sana’a Urban Ecology, Follow- up Study. MCHUP/GTZ Planning Assistance for Urban Development.
  18. UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMME (UN-HABITAT). 2003. The challenge of slums: global report on human settlements. London: Earthscan.
  19. UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMME (UN-HABITAT) 2004/2005. The State of The World’s Cities.
  20. ZEUG, G., ECKERT, S., STEINER, U., KUKUK, T., and EHRLICH, D., 2008. Monitoring Urban Growth and its Impact on the Environment: the Case of Sana’a, Yemen. ISDE Conference, 12-14 November, Potsdam.