Sultan Qaboos University Journal for Science [SQUJS] <p><strong>Publisher</strong>: Sultan Qaboos University, Oman<br /><strong>Format</strong>: Print &amp; Online<br /><strong>ISSN</strong>: Online: 2414-536X &amp; Print: 1027-524X<br /><strong>DOI</strong>: 10.53539/squjs<br /><strong>Abides by</strong>: Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) Code of Conduct<br /><strong>Available from</strong>: J-Gate, Google Scholar, DOAJ, Al Manhal, Crossref, LOCKSS, EBSCO and DOI<br /><strong>Acceptance Rate</strong>: 35% in 2016<br /><strong>Frequency</strong>: Biannual<br /><strong>Article Processing Charges</strong>: No<br /><a href=""><strong>Read more</strong></a></p> Sultan Qaboos University, Oman en-US Sultan Qaboos University Journal for Science [SQUJS] 1027-524X <p>All articles of this journal are Open Access and it follows the terms outlined by the Creative Commons — Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International — CC BY-NC 4.0.</p><div>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</div><ol type="a"><ol><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ol></ol> The Class I Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor as a Potent Therapeutic Target for Treating Glioblastoma and Mocetinostat as a Novel Inhibitor in the Induction Death of Cancer Cells <p>Epigenetic abnormality is one of the hallmarks of glioblastoma cancer cells. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) modification has a crucial role in epigenetic abnormality, which results in the initiation and progression of glioblastoma cancer cells. The selective HDAC inhibitors are well-known epigenetic regulators and promising anti-cancer agents that target specific HDAC enzymes and inhibit the proliferation of many cancer cells. Selective HDAC inhibitors isoform provides a high efficacy as chemotherapy in inhibiting cancer confirmation compared to non-selective HDAC inhibitors. Additionally, selective HDAC inhibitors suppress Class -I HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC11. HDAC class I inhibitors induce apoptosis, differentiation, autophagic death cells, and reactive oxygen species (ROS)- induced cell death, inhibit cell migration, invasion, and angiogenesis in cancer cells, while the normal cells showed more resistance to HDAC class I inhibitors. Mocetinostat (MGCD0103), a benzamide histone deacetylase, is a potent anti-cancer therapy for the treatment of several cancer cell lines and induction of autophagy. It has been approved by The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cell lines. MGCD0103 is a synthesized and selective HDAC inhibitor that has vigorous inhibitory activity against Class-I and IV HDAC. MGCD0103 is well tolerated and has favorable pharmacokinetic properties, pharmacodynamic profile, and fast absorption within 1 hour after oral administration, long elimination half-life, and sustained HDAC inhibition. Therefore, MGCD0103 is expected to be a promising anti-cancer drug for treating several types of human cancer cells.</p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left: -9.0pt; text-align: justify;"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;"> Keywords:</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;"> MGCD0103; Apoptosis; Differentiation; Gliblastoma; HDAC; inhibitors.</span></p> Firas Hameed Khathayer Copyright (c) 2024 Firas Hameed Khathayer 2024-04-24 2024-04-24 29 1 10.53539/squjs.vol29isspp1-14 Genotoxic Response and Histological Alterations in Rat Lungs Exposed to Gasoline Generator Exhaust <p>The epileptic power supply in Nigeria has caused a surge in the production of energy from other sources, including gasoline generator sets. The air pollution caused by the exhaust from these engines has been implicated in a variety of metabolic disorders and diseases, including cancer. This study aims at understanding the genotoxic and histopathological effects of gasoline generator exhaust exposure on the DNA and lungs of adult male wistar rats. Forty- eight (48) adult wistar rats were divided into four categories, each with 12 rats. The control rats were not exposed to gasoline generator exhaust while the test groups were exposed at 2, 4, and 8-hour intervals for a duration of 4, 8, and, 12 weeks respectively. Animals were euthanized using cervical dislocation and blood samples were obtained for genotoxic analysis via cardiac puncture while the lungs were preserved for 72 hours in 10% neutral buffered formalin and further processed for histological studies. The Olive Tail Moment (OTM) of the exposed rats showed significant variation across the exposure time points when compared to the unexposed control, indicating that exposure to gasoline generator exhaust negatively impacts the DNA. Additionally, histological investigations also indicated some cytopathic characteristics, such as peribronchiolar and perivascular infiltration by inflammatory cells, congestion, and thickening of blood vessels. The findings of this study showed that exposure to gasoline generator exhaust induces genotoxic damage with the severity of the damage occurring in a time/exposure-dependent manner. </p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Air pollution; Nigeria; Gasoline; Generator; Genotoxicity.</p> Akinpelu Moronkeji Frederick O.Akinbo Copyright (c) 2024 Akinpelu Moronkeji, Frederick O.Akinbo 2024-04-24 2024-04-24 29 1 10.53539/squjs.vol29isspp15-27 Production and Optimization of Extracellular α-amylase From Halophilic Bacteria Cytobacillus oceanisediminis Isolated From Wadi-El-Natrun, Egypt <p>The current study aimed to maximize α-amylase enzyme production by halophilic bacteria <em>Cytobacillus oceanisediminis </em>isolated from soil of Wadi-El-Natrun, Egypt. The results showed that of 21 halophilic bacterial isolates recovered from saline soil samples, eight isolates were high amylase producers. Interestingly, the bacterial isolate AHB6 exhibited the highest extracellular amylase production and was selected for further studies. This isolate was molecularly identified based on the 16srRNA gene sequencing as <em>Cytobacillus oceanisediminis </em>and has the accession number OM759999<strong>. </strong>The optimum temperature for α-amylase enzyme was 45 °C and exhibited thermostability at 45 °C for 1 h and retained more than 80% of its original activity. The α-amylase enzyme was active in almost all tested pHs and reached its highest activity at pH 9. Also, the optimum culture conditions for α-amylase enzyme production were wheat bran as carbon source, 2 g/l K<sub>2</sub>HPO<sub>4</sub> as potassium source, 6 g/l MgSO<sub>4</sub> as magnesium source and 0.5 g/l KNO<sub>3</sub> as nitrogen source. These findings suggest the applicability of bacterial isolate <em>Cytobacillus</em> <em>oceanisediminis</em> as a potent producer of α-amylase for industrial purposes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Amylase; Optimization; <em>Cytobacillus oceanisediminis;</em> Starch hydrolysis; Thermo-halophilic bacteria. &nbsp;</p> Nada A. Hashem Naeima M.H. Yousef Copyright (c) 2024 Nada A. Hashem, Naeima M.H. Yousef 2024-04-24 2024-04-24 29 1 10.53539/squjs.vol29iss1pp28-43 Evaluation of Hospital Wastewater Treatment Using Sewage Treatment Plant for Heavy Metals, Radionuclides, and Some Pharmaceuticals: A Case Study <p>This is the first study in Oman to evaluate the efficiency of a sewage treatment plant (STP) for hospital wastewater (HWW) treatment for heavy metals, radionuclides, and some selected pharmaceuticals. A sewage treatment plant (STP) at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) receives HWW, from Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), and municipal wastewater from non-medical facilities at SQU. Representative samples of HWW (before mixing with municipal wastewater at STP), STP-treated wastewater (TWW), and STP mixing sludge, were collected and analyzed. A method for analyzing pharmaceuticals including metformin, atenolol, chlorpheniramine, triprolidine, diphenhydramine, and citalopram was developed and validated using LC-MS-MS. HWW and TWW show low concentrations of heavy metals. Radionuclides found in HWW include Cs<sup>137</sup>, K<sup>40</sup>, Ra<sup>226</sup>, Th<sup>234</sup>, I<sup>131</sup>, Tl<sup>208</sup>, Zn<sup>65</sup> Ac<sup>228</sup>, Sb<sup>125</sup>, Bi<sup>124 </sup>and Be<sup>7</sup>. Diphenhydramine (2.24 mg/L), chlorpheniramine (0.293 mg/L) and atenolol (0.0260 mg/L) were found in HWW. Heavy metals, radionuclides, and pharmaceuticals were found less in TWW than in HWW. STP sewage sludge showed higher levels of these pollutants than HWW or TWW. Concentrations of diphenhydramine, chlorpheniramine, and citalopram were 137, 0.950, and 169 mg/kg, respectively in dried sewage sludge. The study confirms the ineffectiveness of STP treatment to completely remediate HWW. HWW should be considered hazardous and requires physico-chemical treatment before mixing with municipal wastewater.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Hospital, pharmaceuticals, radionuclides, heavy metals, wastewater.</p> Amira M.A. Al-Maqrashia El-Said I. EL-Shafey Haider A. Al-Lawati Abbasher M. Gismelseed Bashayer B. Al-Mamari Copyright (c) 2024 Amira M.A. Al-Maqrashia, El-Said I. EL-Shafey, Haider A. Al-Lawati , Abbasher M. Gismelseed , Bashayer B. Al-Mamari 2024-04-24 2024-04-24 29 1 10.53539/squjs.vol29iss1pp44-55 Preliminary Evidence for the Decline in Discharge at Falaj Daris, Nizwa, Oman <p>Falaj Daris is one of the oldest active aflāj located in Oman and the largest in the Dakhiliyah governorate. It is a 7,999-meter long Dāwūdī-type falaj. Ninety-five percent of water drawn from falaj Daris is used for agricultural irrigation and the remaining five percent is used for domestic purposes. In this paper, we analyzed several datasets including falaj Daris discharge, borehole water levels in wadi al-Abyadh, whose aquifer falaj Daris taps, and GRACE satellite data to determine the historical trend of falaj Daris discharge during 1982-2020. A set of standard statistical methods and data visualization techniques were applied including the Mann-Kendall trend test. Preliminary evidence shows a decline of 226,000 L/day in falaj Daris discharge between 1982-2020. This finding is supported by the overall trends in borehole water levels in wadi al-Abyadh. All these trends were confirmed using GRACE satellite data which shows a decrease in water volume of 6 (WET cm) in the larger basin between 2002-2021.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> qanat; falaj Daris; wadi al-Abyadh; Nizwa, Oman; GRACE satellite.</p> Ziyana Al-Rawahi Paul R. Houser Copyright (c) 2024 Ziyana Al-Rawahi , Paul R. Houser 2024-04-24 2024-04-24 29 1 10.53539/squjs.vol29iss1pp56-67 Lithostratigraphy and Microfacies of the Upper Cretaceous Muti Formation of the Oman Foreland Basin, Nakhal Area, Oman <p>The Upper Cretaceous Muti Formation was deposited in the Oman Foreland Basin during the obduction of the allochthonous units on the eastern margin of the Arabian Platform. The formation is exposed in various isolated outcrops around Jabal Akhdar Mountain and is located between the Mesozoic platform carbonates below and the allochthonous nappe above. The current study is the first to describe the outcrops of the Muti Formation in the Nakhal area. It focuses on the lithofacies, microfacies distribution, and the characterization of the depositional environment of the formation. The lithofacies and microfacies of the formation are described from two measured sections in the study area. The Nakhal section is about 50 m thick and consists of four lithofacies: marl, bedded limestone, nodular limestone, and clay. A total of four microfacies are identified, including echinoderm-spine wackestone, bioclastic packestone, arenaceous wackestone, and mudstone. Diagenetic features such as fractures, cementations, and dissolutions, and their products, for instance, porosities, were also identified, and their paragenetic history was reconstructed. Additionally, microfossils, such as bryozoan fragments, calcispheres, bivalves, fragments of echinoids, and brachiopod fragments, benthic and planktonic foraminifera were recognized. Based on lithological and biotic variations, it is suggested that the Muti Formation in the Nakhal area was deposited in a shallow marine environment on the outer to the mid-carbonate shelves. This formation is subjected to diagenetic changes starting with eogenesis in marine settings followed by burial diagenesis, and subsequently, the formation is exposed to the telogenetic diagenesis phase.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Keywords:</strong> Muti Formation, Nakhal Area, Oman Foreland Basin, Upper Cretaceous, Jabal Akhdar.</p> Jenan Ahmed Attar Iftikhar Ahmed Abbasi Muhammad Hanif Mohamed A.K. El-Ghali Abdulrazaq Al-Sayigh Abdul Rahman Al-Harthi Copyright (c) 2024 Jenan Ahmed Attar, Iftikhar Ahmed Abbasi, Muhammad Hanif, Mohamed A.K. El-Ghali, Abdulrazaq Al-Sayigh, Abdul Rahman Al-Harthi 2024-04-24 2024-04-24 29 1 68 85 10.53539/squjs.vol29iss1pp68-85 In-situ Location of Precious Stones using Magnetic Data and Pseudo-Gravity Transforms in Parts of the Nupe Basin Area of Nigeria <p>In-situ location of precious stones from the mineral-rich zones in parts of Lafiagi (Sheet 203) and Pategi (Sheet 204) areas of Bida basin, central Nigeria was carried out. It was aimed at identification of the structures that usually host precious stones and then locating them in these areas. This work involved the qualitative and quantitative analysis of aeromagnetic data and pseudo-gravity transforms using the 3-D Euler Deconvolution subroutine of Oasis Montaj<sup>TM</sup> software and the geological information obtained from reliable sources in the structural interpretation and isolation work. The geological features in the studied region have been connected to the presence of gemstones known to associate with them making their location logical and easier than the hit- or-miss approach adopted by the artesian miners. The results have shown that the abundance of 2D and 3D structures that are commonly associated with precious minerals as well as the persistence and continual activities of artisanal miners explain why the study area is rich in mineral deposits.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Precious stones, Mineral-rich, aeromagnetic, pseudo-gravity transforms, 3-D Euler.</p> Olawuyi A.K Copyright (c) 2024 Olawuyi A.K 2024-04-24 2024-04-24 29 1 10.53539/squjs.vol29iss1pp86-94 Supercontinuum Generation by Controlling Pitch in Photonic Crystal Fibers <p>The influence of varying the distance between air holes (pitch) on the geography of solitone propagation through a photonic crystal fiber has been tested. The study depends on the Split-Step Fourier method and the results quantified using MATLAB.&nbsp; The first-order solitone was tested with the change in pitch, and it was found that there is a clear decay in the amplitude of the resulting pulse with an increase in pitch. When increasing the pitch in the case of second-order solitons, it was noticed that the pulse would split into multiple-order solitons down to higher-order solitons with the increase in pitch. In the case of third-order solitons, solitonic fission leads to the supercontinuum generation with increasing the pitch, where the supercontinuum generation&nbsp; was reached in this way depending on a very small energy source compared to the high energies used to generate&nbsp; this type of spectrum&nbsp; by the previous&nbsp; methods. In this study, I observed that when the pitch values increased in the third-order soliton, this result led to the use of supercontinuum generation (ScG) which has many applications such as medical and industrial applications and has an important role in modern communication systems.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Photonic Crystal Fiber, Split-Step Fourier, Soliton Pulse, Pitch, Supercontinuum Generation.</p> Mohammed Salim Jasim Al-Taie Copyright (c) 2024 Mohammed Salim Jasim Al-Taie 2024-04-24 2024-04-24 29 1 10.53539/squjs.vol29iss1pp95-102