Main Article Content


Objectives: Antimicrobial resistance is a growing problem worldwide, which imposes difficulties in the selection of appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy. This study evaluated extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) isolates in 2005 in The Department of Child Health at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman. Methods: During the 12 month period from January 2005 to December 2005, ESBL isolates from paediatrics inpatients were identified and analysed. Risk factors for the patients who grew ESBLs were analysed . Results: 13.3% of E. coli and 16.6% of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated were ESBL producers. Most of the ESBLs were from urine (46.2%) and blood (42.6%). The main risk factors for ESBL in these children were previous exposure to antimicrobials (100%), prolonged hospital stay, severe illness (92.3%) and female gender (84.6%). Sensitivity of 100% was observed to carbapenems whereas 92% of the isolates were susceptible to amikacin. The oximino-cephalosporins were 100% resistant. Klebsiella pneumoniae were 100% resistant to piperacillin-tazobactam and nitrofurantoin. E. coli was 100% resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin. No resistance was recorded for the following combinations: amikacin plus piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin plus nitrofurantoin and gentamicin plus nitrofurantoin. Conclusion: ESBL-producing organisms are becoming a major problem in Omani children. Exposure to antimicrobials and long admissions are modifiable risk factors that should be targeted for better control. Carbapenems are the most sensitive and reliable treatment options for infections caused by ESBLs. Amikacin plus piperacillin-tazobactam or nitrofurantoin are good alternatives.




Extended-spectrum β-lactamase Escherichia coli Klebsiella pneumonia Anti-infective agents Risk factors Oman.

Article Details

How to Cite
Muharrmi, Z. A., Rafay, A. M., Balkhair, A., Al-Tamemi, S., Mawali, A. A., & Al Sadiri, H. (2008). Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) in Omani Children : Study of prevalence, risk factors and clinical outcomes at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Sultan. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 8(2), 171–177. Retrieved from

Most read articles by the same author(s)