Validity of Cardiac Markers as Diagnostic and Prognostic Indicators of Complications in Patients undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Hafidh A Alhadi, Keith A A Fox

Abstract


Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) in elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and compare it with standard cardiac markers. Methods: A prospective evaluation was done of 80 consecutive patients admitted for elective PCI. Serum cardiac troponin T (cTnT), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB mass), myoglobin, and H-FABP were determined pre-angioplasty and 1, 2, 4, and 16–24 hrs post-angioplasty. Elevated cardiac markers were correlated with demographic, angiographic and procedural variables. Patients were followed up for 20–26 months. Results: H-FABP peaked early at 2 hours and was useful for the early detection of evolving AMI within 1–3 hours after angioplasty. Cardiac-TnI, myoglobin, H-FABP, CK-MB mass, and cTnT concentrations were elevated in 46.25%, 17.5%, 13.3%, 11.25%, and 7.5% respectively. Cardiac-TnI was the most sensitive marker for detecting all complications and was superior to all other markers. Elevated cardiac markers were correlated with old age (P < 0.02); chest pain ± ECG changes of ischaemia (P < 0.003); use of stents (P < 0.019) and major complications such as major dissection (P < 0.004); transient vessel closure (P < 0.022); bail out stent (P < 0.003), and AMI (P < 0.042). Elevated cardiac markers were associated with a reduction of event-free survival (16.92 versus 20.67 months, P < 0.03). Conclusion: Heart-type-FABP measurements at 1 hour (or thereafter) post-PCI may offer an early chance of detecting evolving AMI; cTnI was the most sensitive marker for the detection of major complications in patients undergoing PCI. Measurements of cTnI 16–24 hours post-PCI should be part of the routine management of patients following elective PCI.



Keywords


Percutaneous coronary intervention; PCI; Acute coronary syndrome; Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein; Cardiac markers; Cardiac troponins; Complications.

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Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 35, Postal Code 123, Al-Khod, Muscat, Oman

ISSN (Print edition): 2075-051X ISSN (Internet edition): 2075-0528

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