Unmasking Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) : A report of five cases and review of the literature

Abdullah Balkhair, Sudheer Ahamed, Dilip Sankhla


Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes (IRIS) in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are characterised by atypical manifestations of opportunistic pathogens. These occur in patients experiencing improvement in CD4 cell counts following receipt of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Although well established as a syndrome, IRIS still presents challenges in diagnosis and management. We report five cases of IRIS with diverse clinical presentations and due to different infectious aetiologies. A review of the published literature on this syndrome is also included.


HIV; AIDS; HAART; Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome; IRIS; TB; Atypical mycobacterium; Cryptococcus; Toxoplasmosis; Cryptosporidium; Case report; Oman

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Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 35, Postal Code 123, Al-Khod, Muscat, Oman

ISSN (Print edition): 2075-051X ISSN (Internet edition): 2075-0528

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