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Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes (IRIS) in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are characterised by atypical manifestations of opportunistic pathogens. These occur in patients experiencing improvement in CD4 cell counts following receipt of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Although well established as a syndrome, IRIS still presents challenges in diagnosis and management. We report five cases of IRIS with diverse clinical presentations and due to different infectious aetiologies. A review of the published literature on this syndrome is also included.


HIV AIDS HAART Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome IRIS TB Atypical mycobacterium Cryptococcus Toxoplasmosis Cryptosporidium Case report Oman

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Balkhair, A., Ahamed, S., & Sankhla, D. (2011). Unmasking Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) : A report of five cases and review of the literature. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 11(1), 95–103. Retrieved from

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