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Visceral leishmaniasis is a disease caused by a haemoflagellate protozoan of the genus Leishmania. It has a wide geographical spread. Classic cases are found primarily in children and present with typical features that include fever, anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and pancytopenia. The diagnosis is usually achieved by bone marrow smears, culture and serology; however, it can manifest itself atypically, mostly in patients infected with HIV and geriatric immunocompetent patients. We report an unusual case of visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in a 27 year-old HIV-infected male who presented with abdominal discomfort and diarrhoea of four weeks duration associated with nausea and vomiting, but with no typical symptoms or signs of visceral leishmaniasis. The diagnosis was established through the identification of the Leishmania organism in duodenal and colonic biopsies and confirmed by subsequent bone marrow smears. 


Visceral leishmaniasis HIV Duodenal biopsy Case report Iraq

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Jawhar, N. M. T. (2011). Visceral Leishmaniasis with an Unusual Presentation in an HIV Positive Patient. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 11(2), 264–272. Retrieved from