Prevalence of Urinary Incontinence and Probable Risk Factors in a Sample of Kurdish Women

Hamdia M. Ahmed, Vian A. Osman, Shahla K. Al-Alaf, Namir G. Al-Tawil


Objectives: The most common manifestation of pelvic floor dysfunction is urinary incontinence (UI) which affects 15–50% of adult women depending on the age and risk factors of the population studied. The aim of this study was to determine the probable risk factors associated with UI; the characteristics of women with UI; describe the types of UI, and determine its prevalence. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and August 2011, in the Maternity Teaching Hospital of the Erbil Governorate, Kurdistan Region, northern Iraq. It included 1,107 women who were accompanying patients admitted to the hospital. A questionnaire designed by the researchers was used for data collection. A chi-square test was used to test the significance of the association between UI and different risk factors. Binary logistic regression was used, considering UI as the dependent variable. Results: The overall prevalence of UI was 51.7%. The prevalence of stress, urgency, and mixed UI was 5.4%, 13.3% and 33%, respectively. There was a significant positive association between UI and menopause, multiparity, diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic cough, constipation, and a history of gynaecological surgery, while a significant negative association was detected between UI and a history of delivery by both vaginal delivery and Caesarean section. Conclusion: A high prevalence of UI was detected in the studied sample, and the most probable risk factors were multiparity, menopausal status, constipation, chronic cough, and DM.


Prevalence; Women; Risk factors; Menopause; Quality of life; Urinary incontinence; Iraq.

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Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 35, Postal Code 123, Al-Khod, Muscat, Oman

ISSN (Print edition): 2075-051X ISSN (Internet edition): 2075-0528

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