Effects of Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain on Low Birth Weight in Omani Infants : A case-control study

Mustafa Al-Hinai, Majid Al-Muqbali, Aisha Al-Moqbali, Vaidyanathan Gowri, Abdullah Al-Maniri

Abstract


Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the association between pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain and low birth weight (LBW) in babies born to a sample population of Omani women. Methods: A case-control study was carried out among deliveries registered between 1st May 2010 and 30th April 2011 at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. A case was defined as a woman who delivered a low birth weight baby (<2,500 g); a control was a woman delivering a baby weighing between 2,500 and 4,000 g. A random selection of 150 cases and 300 controls was carried out using the hospital information system. Maternal, pre-natal, and delivery data were extracted from the mothers’ follow-up cards. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were executed to examine the association between pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and LBW. Results: The percentage of underweight mothers (BMI <18.5) was higher among the cases compared to the controls (17.3% versus 6%; P <0.001). The proportion of mothers with less-than-recommended weight gain was also higher among the cases compared to the controls (57.7% versus 33%; P <0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, infants of underweight mothers had more than twice the risk of LBW compared to those of mothers with normal weight (odds ratio = 2.27; 95% confidence interval 1.09–4.71). Conclusion: Underweight Omani women as well as women with less-than-recommended gestational weight gain were at higher risk of delivering LBW babies. Maternal health promotion programmes should be directed towards improving mothers’ nutrition before and during pregnancies.


Keywords


Body Mass Index; Pregnancy; Gestational Age; Birth Weight; Oman.

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Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 35, Postal Code 123, Al-Khod, Muscat, Oman

ISSN (Print edition): 2075-051X ISSN (Internet edition): 2075-0528

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