Relationship Between Glycated Haemoglobin and Carotid Atherosclerotic Disease Among Patients with Acute Ischaemic Stroke

Saima Nazish, Azra Zafar, Rizwana Shahid, Aishah Albakr, Fahd A. Alkhamis, Danah Aljaafari, Majed Alabdali, Abdullah Alsulaiman, Faisal A. Al-Mulla

Abstract


Objectives: This study aimed to determine the relationship between glycaemic control and carotid atherosclerotic disease among patients with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS). Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study took place in the Neurology Department of King Fahad Hospital of University, Khobar, Saudi Arabia, from April to October 2017. Data were collected from the medical records of 244 patients with a diagnosis of AIS confirmed by computed tomography. Doppler ultrasounds of the carotid artery were performed to determine the presence of increased carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and plaques. Results: Significantly higher mean glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were noted in cases with high CIMT values (P = 0.002), but not in cases with carotid plaques (P = 0.360). In addition, there was a significant association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and high CIMT (P = 0.045), but not with carotid plaques (P = 0.075). Finally, while dyslipidaemia and age were independently correlated with high CIMT values (P = 0.034 and <0.001, respectively) and carotid plaques (P <0.001 each), no independent relationships were noted in terms of gender and other risk factors like DM, hypertension and smoking (P >0.050 each). Conclusion: High HbA1c levels were associated with high CIMT values, but not with carotid plaques. Therefore, HbA1c levels may be useful as an indirect marker of the initial stages of carotid artery atherosclerosis.


Keywords: Glycated Hemoglobin A1c; Diabetes Mellitus; Carotid Intima-Media Thickness; Atherosclerotic Plaque; Stroke.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18295/squmj.2018.18.03.008

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Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 35, Postal Code 123, Al-Khod, Muscat, Oman

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