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Caffey disease is a rare and self-limiting condition characterised by cortical hyperostosis with inflammation of adjacent fascia and muscles. It usually presents in infancy and clinical features include hyperirritability, acute inflammation with swelling of overlying soft tissues and subperiosteal new bone formation. Awareness of the existence of this rare condition and its typical clinical and radiological profile will avoid unnecessary investigations and treatment and help the physician to explain its good prognosis to parents of affected children. We report a three-month-old male infant who presented to the Outpatient Paediatrics Department at Moti Lal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad, India, in 2018 with a right shoulder mass, decreased upper limb movements and irritability. The patient was treated with ibuprofen and paracetamol. Irritability and limitation of movement improved over a treatment period of two weeks.

Keywords: Caffey Disease; Infant; Prostaglandin E1; Thrombocytosis; Case Report; India.

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Siddiqui, S. A., Siddiqui, G. F., Maurya, M., Shrivastava, A., & Singh, M. V. . (2020). Caffey Disease in Infancy: A diagnostic dilemma for primary care physicians. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal [SQUMJ], 20(1), e109–111.