Use of Noninvasive Ventilation and High-Flow Nasal Cannulae Therapy for Infants and Children with Acute Respiratory Distress Outside of Paediatric Intensive Care: A review article

Khaloud S. Almukhaini, Najwa M. Al-Rahbi


Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and high-flow nasal cannulae therapy (HFNCT) are first-line methods of treatment for children presenting with acute respiratory distress, with paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) providing an ideal environment for subsequent treatment monitoring. However, the availability of step-down units, where NIV and HFNCT can be safely utilised, has reduced the need for such patients to be admitted to PICUs, thereby leading to the better overall utilisation of critical care resources. In addition, NIV and HFNCT can also be used during transport instead of invasive ventilation, thus avoiding the complications associated with the latter approach. This review article examines the safety and applicability of these respiratory support approaches outside of paediatric intensive care as well as various factors associated with treatment success or failure.

Keywords: Critical Care; Children; Pediatric Intensive Care Units; Noninvasive Ventilation; Nasal Cannulae; Transportation of Patients.

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Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 35, Postal Code 123, Al-Khod, Muscat, Oman

ISSN (Print edition): 2075-051X ISSN (Internet edition): 2075-0528

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