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Objectives: This study aimed to assess and explore factors affecting diabetes self-management (DSM) among Omani adults with type one diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from May to November 2018. Convenience sampling was used to recruit participants from three referral hospitals in Oman. Data were collected using the Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire, Empowerment Scale (short form), Medical Outcome Study Social Support Scale, Diabetes Knowledge Test and glycosylated haemoglobin test results. Linear multiple regression analysis was used to explore possible predictors of DSM. Results: A total of 210 people participated in the study (response rate: 87.5%). The majority of participants were female (70.5%) with a mean age of 26.82 ± 8.25 years. The mean score for DSM was 6.8 ± 1.4, which represents 68% of the total maximum score. More than one-third (36.2%) of the participants had poor glycaemic control. The predictors of high levels of DSM were being employed (P = 0.049), earning a low monthly income of less than 300 Omani rials (P = 0.014), having other chronic diseases (P = 0.029), a high diabetes self-efficacy (DSE; P = 0.003) and high social support (SS; P = 0.006). Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, Omanis with T1DM have suboptimal DSM levels. Factors such as diabetes knowledge, DSE and SS are modifiable factors that can be targeted by interventions from different healthcare professionals to enhance DSM.
Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus; Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus; Self-Management; Adult; Oman.
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