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Objectives: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, a Gram-negative non-fermentative bacillus, has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen in recent years. It is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics and has the ability to acquire antibiotic resistance by multiple mechanisms. Treating Stenotrophomonas infections, therefore, is a serious challenge for physicians. This study aimed to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and risk factors contributing to S. maltophilia infections. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at Sohar Hospital in Sohar, Oman. The demographic, clinical and microbiological data of individuals from whom S. maltophilia was isolated between September 2016 and August 2019 were reviewed. Descriptive statistics were presented as frequencies and percentages. Results: A total of 41 S. maltophilia isolates from clinical specimens of 41 patients were studied. Infection occurred predominantly in males (73%) and the majority of patients (88%) were either ≤5 years old or >60 years old. All inpatients had at least one comorbidity while 50% had more than one. All inpatients were exposed to various medical interventions such as intensive care (44%), mechanical ventilation (41%), haemodialysis (25%), Foley’s catheterisation (13%) and central venous lines (6%). Most patients (81%) were in hospital longer than two weeks. The susceptibility rates of S. maltophilia to minocycline (97%), trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole (93%) and levofloxacin (92%) were high; the rate was lowest for ceftazidime (50%). Conclusion: S. maltophilia was found to be an important nosocomial opportunistic pathogen. Prolonged hospital stay and exposure to various medical interventions were key factors contributing to the development of infection. Minocycline and ceftazidime were found to be the most and least susceptible drugs, respectively.
Nosocomial Infection; Opportunistic Infections; Fluoroquinolones; Hemodialysis; Ventilation; Oman.
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