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Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the serological prevalence of coeliac disease in patients with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) of unknown cause at a primary healthcare facility in Oman. Methods: This prospective case-finding study was conducted at the primary care clinics in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman from September 2018 to June 2020. Patients aged 18 to 55 years, with a haemoglobin (Hb) level <11.5 g/dL for males and <11.0 g/dL for females and a ferritin level <30 ng/mL for males and <13 ng/mL for females, were included in the study. Blood samples were obtained for initial serological screening using serum immunoglobulin (Ig)A level; those samples with normal levels of IgA, IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG) and IgA anti-deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP) were determined. Positive IgA-tTG test was confirmed using IgA-endomysial antibodies. Patients with low IgA levels were tested using IgG-tTG and IgG-DGP. Results: A total of 104 patients participated in this study. Eight patients (7.7%) were found to have a positive serological screening result for coeliac disease; of these patients, three (37.5%) had a positive IgA-tTG result. Two of those three (66.7%) had a positive IgA-endomysial antibody. The IgA-DGP result was positive in seven (6.7%) of the 104 patients. Out of those seven patients, two also had a positive IgA tTG. Conclusion: Coeliac disease is not a rare disorder. There is a need to increase awareness among healthcare professionals about coeliac disease and its non-classical manifestations such as IDA.
Keywords: Celiac Disease; Iron-Deficiency Anemia; Serological Testing; Tissue Transglutaminase Antibody; Deamidated Gliadin Peptide; Oman.
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