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Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infection of the heart endocardium with significant morbidity and mortality. Gram negative infection, particularly emphysematous IE, is an extremely rare and life-threatening disease. We report a 59-year-old diabetic female patient who was admitted to a secondary care hospital in Rustaq, Oman, in 2017 with the diagnosis of pneumonia for which she was started on antibiotics. Shortly afterwards, she developed facial and mouth deviation and became more tachypneic. Computed tomography of the brain demonstrated bilateral multiple small infarcts. Pulmonary angiography computed tomography was performed which ruled out pulmonary embolism. Nonetheless, it revealed an air-containing lesion around the mitral valve. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated a hyperechoic mobile lesion related to the mitral valve. Blood culture grew Escherichia coli and the diagnosis of E. coli emphysematous IE was made based on modified Duke criteria. The patient’s clinical condition deteriorated and she suffered cardiac arrest leading to her death. The recommended treatment for non-HACEK IE includes an extended antibiotic course and surgery for selected patients.

Keywords: Endocarditis; Escherichia coli; Mitral Valve; Echocardiography; Intracranial Embolism; Emphysema; Case Report; Oman.  

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How to Cite
Al-Dhahli, A. S., Al-Umairi, R. S., & Elkadi, O. (2022). A Rare Case of Emphysematous Endocarditis Caused by Escherichia coli. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 22(1), 134–137.