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Co-infections or consecutive infections of mucormycosis and aspergillosis are very rare. Additionally, distinguishing between these two infections is also difficult as both these conditions have similar clinical features. We report two similar cases from Tamilnadu, who presented to a tertiary care centre in Puducherry, India in 2017 (first case) and 2019 (second case).The first case was a 70-year-old, non-diabetic male patient who presented with haemoptysis with a prior history of pulmonary tuberculosis. Computed tomography bronchial angiography revealed an air-crescent sign and the histopathological examination showed a fungal ball (aspergillus and mucor) in the upper lobe and foci of fungal infection in the middle lobe. The second case was a 65-year-old diabetic male patient who presented with blackish expectoration and haemoptysis. A high-resolution computed tomography scan showed a reverse-halo sign in the right upper lobe. The results of the bronchoscopy-guided biopsy were consistent with a diagnosis of mixed mucormycosis and aspergillosis with angioinvasion. Both patients responded to amphotericin B with surgical excision of the affected lobe in the first case.A high degree of clinical suspicion, early surgical intervention and antifungal therapy are essential in the treatment of this rare co-infection.

Keywords:Aspergillosis; Mucormycosis; Bronchoscopy; Coinfection; Amphotericin B; Case Report; India.

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Chari M, R. ., Rajaram, M., M, M., ChToi, P., & L, S. (2021). Pulmonary Aspergillus and Mucor Co-Infection: A report of two cases. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 1(1).