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Objectives: Ruxolitinib is a Janus kinase inhibitor (JAK) that is approved for the treatment of myelofibrosis. The therapeutic protocol has changed after the introduction of Ruxolitinib. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Ruxolitinib and to compare it with best available therapy in patients with primary myelofibrosis. Methods: In this retrospective study, 72 patients with primary myelofibrosis were scrutinized in the period from 2012 to 2018 at Nanakali hemato-oncology teaching center, Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan. The patients were divided into 2 cohorts, 26 of them were treated with Ruxolitinib and 46 others received best available therapy. The patients’ characteristics, their response to treatment, and the outcomes were evaluated. The efficacy of treatment in both arms was compared. Results: The majority our studied patients (46, 63.8%) were in the high and intermediate-2 risk groups according to international prognostic scoring system. At time of diagnosis, there were no noticeable differences in the clinical characteristics and laboratory data among the Ruxolitinib and best available treatment groups of patients. Ruxolitinib was found to be effective in reducing the size of spleen and improving the overall survival when compared to best available treatment group (p<0.001, p= 0.008 respectively). The patients’ performance state had a significant effect on the overall survival in both treatment groups (p=0.003). Conclusion: Ruxolitinib has a significant role in reduction of spleen size, and potentially affect the survival outcomes in patients with myelofibrosis.

Keywords: Ruxolitinib, Myelofibrosis, Splenomegaly, Outcomes.

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How to Cite
Hasan, K. M., Elmeshhadany, A. Y., & Shabila, N. P. (2021). Evaluation of Ruxolitinib versus Best Available Therapy in Treating Primary Myelofibrosis. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal [SQUMJ], 1(1).