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Objectives: This study aimed to determine extubation failure (EF) rate among intubated preterm infants (<37 weeks gestational age [GA]) admitted to a tertiary care neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Oman and identify the risk factors associated with EF. Methods: This retrospective study included all intubated preterm infants (<37 weeks GA) admitted to the NICU at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) from January 2013 to December 2017. EF was defined as reintubation within seven days of planned extubation. Demographics, ventilation parameters, blood gas values and other possible risk factors of EF were collected. Statistical analysis included comparisons between EF and extubation success (ES) groups and a binary logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 190 preterm infants were intubated during the study period with 140 eligible for analysis. A total of 106 infants (75.7%) were successfully extubated while 34 (24.3%) failed extubation. GA <28 weeks (P = 0.029), lower 1-minute Apgar score (P = 0.023) and patent ductus arteriosus diagnosis (P = 0.018) were significantly associated with EF. After the multivariate analysis, only GA <28 weeks predicted EF with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.621 (95% confidence interval: 1.118 – 6.146). Conclusion: EF rate in preterm infants admitted at the NICU of SQUH was within international rates. GA <28 weeks was the only predictor of the identified extubation failure. Neonatal practitioners need to seriously consider extreme prematurity in the extubation process and consider implementing strategies to decrease extubation failure in this group of fragile infants.
Keywords: Premature Infants; Neonate; Airway extubation; Risk Factors; Oman.
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