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Objectives: Enuresis is common among children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Many risk factors have been postulated, but its relation to hyposthenuria is debatable. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of enuresis in children with SCD in Basrah, Iraq, and to examine its relation with hyposthenuria. Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was performed on children with SCD who met the inclusion criteria at the Basrah Center for Hereditary Blood Diseases from December 2020 to May 2021. A questionnaire was used to collect relevant data. Blood samples were tested for haemoglobin genotype, certain blood indices and serum haemoglobin. Urine was tested for albumin and creatinine, and the specific gravity was measured using urine dipsticks. The relationships between enuresis and various sociodemographic and clinical variables were assessed. Binary logistic regression analysis was done to examine the independent risk factors of enuresis. Results: A total of 161 out of 200 eligible children were included in this study (response rate: 80.5%). The majority of participants (60.9%) were males. The mean age of the participants was 10.9 ± 2.9 years. Enuresis was reported in 50 (31.1%) patients. The independent risk factors for enuresis included family history of enuresis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 5.94, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.54– 13.89; P <0.001), hyposthenuria (OR = 3.76, 95% CI: 1.25–11.30; P = 0.018) and sleep disorders (OR = 2.90, 95% CI: 1.19–7.06; P = 0.019. Conclusion: Enuresis is common among children with SCD in Basrah, Iraq. Hyposthenuria was significantly associated with enuresis. Family history of enuresis and sleep disorders were also found to be significantly related to enuresis.
Keywords: Enuresis; Sickle Cell Disease; Children; Prevalence; Iraq.
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