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Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and evaluate risk factors of hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to platinum-based compounds (PBCs) in cancer patients. PBCs play an important role in cancer therapy. However, one of the drawbacks of PBCs is the occasional occurrence of HSRs, which can lead to serious consequences. Methods: This retrospective case control study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2020 at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman and included patients who received any PBC for the management of non-haematological cancers. Data regarding demographic characteristics and diseases and treatment details were collected from the hospital’s electronic database. The data were quantitatively described and Student’s t-test and Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney tests were used to detect significant differences. Results: A total of 38 cases and 148 matched controls were studied. The prevalence of HSRs to PBCs in the cohort of this study was 4.7% (95% confidence interval: 3.33–6.37%), higher with carboplatin compared with cisplatin and oxaliplatin. The female gender (P = 0.032), concomitant taxanes (P = 0.002) and concurrent radiation (P <0.001) were significant predictors of HSRs to PBCs. The majority of the reactions were of mild to moderate severity, and the rechallenge rate after HSR development was 13%. Conclusion: HSRs to PBCs impact therapy decisions and understanding the risk factors is important to improve treatment outcomes in cancer patients.
Keywords: Anti-neoplastic Agent; Hypersensitivity; Medical Oncology; Platinum; Oman.
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