Preparation and Usage of Polyaluminum Chloride as a Coagulating Agent

SK Al-Dawery, OH Al-Joubori


 Three different coagulating agents, Iraqi-produced alum, Swedish-produced alum, and laboratory- produced polyaluminum chloride (PAC) were used to clarify samples taken from Iraqi river water. A laboratory rig was built to produce PAC from the reaction between hydrochloric acid and aluminum powder. The results after raw water treatment showed that the dosage of PAC required for treatment was 98% less than that of alum when it was applied to water at a low turbidity and almost 90% less in the case of much higher turbidity. The application of PAC produced rapidly forming flocs and more compact sludge compared to that of alum. However, there were no significant changes in the pH of the solution. From the results obtained, the PAC agent performed better compared to alum and might be considered a good alternative to alum for raw water and waste water treatment.



Alum, Polyaluminum chloride, Water treatment

Full Text:



Alcoa World Chemicals (2001), Polyaluminum Chloride (PAC). [].

Al-Dawery S, Butris L (2002), Quality improvement of the locally produced alum. Iraqi J. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering 3:50-58.

Alhadidi A, Kennedy M, Diepeveen A, Prummel H (2009), Scaling potential calculations using different methods. Desalination and Water Treatment 6:138-143.

ClearTech Industries Inc (2008), Drinking water treatment. Clear PAC-180 1327-41.

George S (1988), Basic water treatment for application world-wide. 2nd ed, Thomas Telford, London 37- 51.

Halvadiya H, Gangadharan PK, Anand P (2008), Deionization of coagulated, clarified, turbid gauri shankar lake waters by using ion-exchange technology. Separation Science and Technology 43(8):2183-2195.

Kohlschutter HW, Hantelmann P, Diener K, Schilling H (1942), Basic aluminum chlorides. Zeitschr Anorg, Und allgemeine Chem. 248(4):319-344.

Mark JH (1975), Water and waste-water Technology. John Wiley & Sons Inc. 270-455.

Stumm W, Charles RO (1968), Stoichiometry of coagulation. J. AWWA 60:514-539.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 SK Al-Dawery, OH Al-Joubori

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


This journal and its content is licensed under a Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International.

Flag Counter