Main Article Content


This paper focuses on the need for domesticating the production of building materials like tiles to address the problem of Nigeria over dependence on imported goods, despite adequate availability of mineral resources like clay, quartz and feldspar in the country. Clay, quartz and feldspar, and milled glass were respectively obtained from Ogijo in Ogun State, Okpila in Edo State and Oshodi, Lagos State of Nigeria were characterized using ASTM C71 as a guide. Samples of the ceramic tile were produced from varying mixtures of clay, quartz, feldspar and milled glass. The chemical and physio mechanical properties of the samples were also determined. The results showed that the clay sample belong to Alumino-silicate group with 59.20% silica and 21.25% alumina. The samples’ properties met the required standards; hence, the materials were found suitable for production of ceramic tiles of acceptable standards. Though, the porosity of the sample tiles increased as the
percentage weight of the clay material in the mixture decreased the proportion of quartz, feldspar and milled glass increased. The sample containing 70% Clay and 30% Feldspar had better formulation properties than others.


Apparent porosity Bulk density Ceramic Tile Milled glass and Solid minerals.

Article Details

How to Cite
Elakhame, Z., Shuaib-Babata, Y., & Ambali, I. (2019). DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF CERAMIC TILES USING WASTES AND SOLID MINERALS. The Journal of Engineering Research [TJER], 16(1), 53–62.


  1. Abolarin M.S. Olugboji O.A. Ugwuoke I.C. (2006), Determination of moulding properties of locally available clays for casting operations. Assumption University Journal of Technolog, 9(4): 238-242 Bastin E.S. Quartz and feldspar: Quartz and feldspar of maine. Contributions to economic geology, Part I. Available online: https:// bul/ 0315l/report.pdf, accessed on December 20, 2018. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) (2000), Report on management of municipal solid wastes, India, Delhi: Central Pollution Control Board. Cesar M, Sánchez de Rojas M. I. Moisés F, Andrés J (2011), Using ceramic materials in ecoefficient concrete and precast concrete products. Advances in Ceramics – Electric and Magnetic Ceramics, Bioceramics, Ceramics and Environment (24): 533-550, DOI:10.5772/21302 Chete L.N. Adeoti J.O. Adeyinka F.M. Ogundele O (2017), Industrial development and growth in Nigeria: Lesson and challenges, leaning to complete working paper No. 8, African growth initiative at Brookings Institute/African Development Bank Group / United Nations, University UNU-Wider World Institute for Development. Available online: https:// 2016/07/ L2C_WP8_Chete-et-al-1.pdf, accessed on August 22, 2017. Elakhame Z. U. Ifebhor F, Asotah W. A. (2016), Development and production of ceramic tiles from waste bottle powder (milled glass), Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology (KUSET), 12(II): 50-59. Elakhame Z, Bello S. A. Agunsoye J.O. Patric I. Otitoju O (2016b), Characterization of Ujogba clay deposits in Edo State, Nigeria for refractory applications. Kathmadu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology (KUSET), 12(II): 71-82. Encyclopedia Britannica (2018a), Feldspar mineral – chemical composition available online: science/feldspar/ Chemical-composition, accessed on December 10, 2018. Encyclopedia Britannica (2018b), Quartz mineral. Available online: science/quartz, accessed on December 22, 2018. Foraminifera (2017), Kaolin mining in Nigeria, The pre-feasibility report. Available online: https:// marketresearchreports/ mining-and-quarrying/kaolin-mining-in-nigeria-the-pre-feasibility -report/, accessed on December 24, 2017). Finelib (2017), Feldspar mineral deposits in Nigeria and the enriched states. Available online:, accessed on December 24, 2017. Hassan S.B. (1993), Refractory properties of some Nigerian clays. Nigerian Society of Engineers Transactions 28(3): 21-25. Hughes, J.R.T. (2008). Industrialization. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, Thompson Gale, Canada. Available online: http://www. / us-history/industrialization, accessed on June 12, 2017. Hobalt M.K. (2018), What is Quartz? Available online:, accessed on May 22, 2018. Juan A. Medina C. Morán J.M, Guerra M.I. Aguado P.J. Isabel M. Sánchez de Rojas M.I. Frías M. Rodriguez O (2010), Reuse of ceramic wastes in construction. Ceramic Materials, 1st edition, In Technology 197–214. IntechOpen, London, SE19SG, U.K. Krivandin V and Markov B (1980), Metallurgical furnaces. 1st edition, Moscow: Mir Publishers. National Research Council of Italy (2017). Ceramic raw materials, Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics. National Research Council of Italy. Available online: index.php/eng/our-research/high-tech-and-nano technology/389-ceramic-row-material, accessed on December 26, 2017. Projectsxtra (2017), Effect of imported goods on Nigeria Economy (Comparative study). Available online: 302.html, Accessed on November 3, 2017.
  2. Ryan W. C. (1978), Properties of ceramic raw materials, U.S.A.: Oxford paragon press, 6. Safiuddin M. D. Jumaat MZ. Salam M.A. Islam M.S. Hashim R (2010), Utilization of solid wastes in construction materials. International Journal of the Physical Sciences 5(13): 1952–1963. Shuaib-Babata Y.L. Mudiare E. Egwim C.E. (2016). Suitability of using Ado Ekiti, Akerebiata (Ilorin) and Birni Gwari (Kaduna) clays for production of household ceramic water filter. Journal of Engineering Researc, 21(1): 77-79. Shuaib-Babata Y.L. Mudiare E (2017), Characterization and evaluation of the refractory properties of local clay deposits in Kwara State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Mechanical Engineering 7(1): 1-21. Shuaib-Babata Y. L., Abegunde A. J. and Abdul J. M. (2017a), Suitability of Ado-Ekiti (Nigeria) natural moulding sands for use as foundry sands in production of aluminum alloy cast. Journal of Production Engineering, 20(2): 91-100. Shuaib-Babata Y.L. Yaru S.S. Abdulkareem S. Ajayi S. Busari Y.O. Ajao K.S. Ibrahim H.K. Ambali I.O. Mohammed G.A. (2017b), Suitability of some selected Ado-Ekiti (Nigeria) natural moulding sands’ properties for sand casting. Covenant Journal of Engineering Technology (CJET), 1(2): 53-64. Shuaib-Babata Y. L. Abegunde E. Ambali I.O. (2017c), Evaluation of chemical and physico-mechanical properties of Ado-Ekiti (South West, Nigeria) natural moulding sands for foundry applications. Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment (AZOJETE), 13(5): 718-733. Torgal F. P. Jalali S (2010), Reusing ceramic wastes in concrete. Construction and Building Materials 24: 832-838. WIFI Ceramics (2017). The development of ceramic tile industry is inseparable from innovation. Available online: /en/ show news.hb?id=17&dir=1&nid=4&pnid=4, accessed on December 24, 2017. Yoshizawa S. Tanaka M. Shekdar A.V. (2004), Global trends in waste generation. In: recycling, waste treatment and clean technology. TMS mineral, Spain: Metals and Materials Publishers 1541-1552. Youssef N.F. (2002), Utilization of cement kiln dust in the manufacture of wall tiles. Industrial Ceramics 21(1): 1-8.