Main Article Content


The increasing student population, developmental, and commercial activities within the University of Lagos main campus have led to an increase in daily noise levels. These increasing noise disturbances have disrupted the serenity and tranquillity of the campus environment. In this study, the noise levels are assessed at thirty–four selected monitoring stations within the University of Lagos main campus. The assessment was done to determine the compliance of the University to international standards set by World Health Organisation for tolerable noise levels in different environmental types (or land use classes). Over a period of three days, the minimum, maximum and average noise levels at the stations were measured using the Extech 407730 sound level meter. In the analysis, noise level maps were produced using Inverse Distance Weighted interpolation, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between the average observed noise levels and the set standard values. The noise levels measured in the study area ranged from 41.9 - 96.6dBA. It was observed that the minimum noise levels were associated mostly with residential and conservation areas; while the maximum noise levels were mostly associated with commercial areas, vehicle parks and transportation corridors. Generally, the noise levels exceeded the tolerable limits for academic, commercial and residential areas set by World Health Organisation. The results of this study serve as a valuable knowledge base to inform the University management on the need to implement abatement measures aimed at maintaining the noise levels within tolerable limits.


Geographic information system Inverse distance weighted interpolation Noise pollution Pearson’s correlation coefficient Sound level World Health Organisation.

Article Details

Author Biography

Chukwuma Okolie, Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics Faculty of Engineering University of Lagos


Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics
Faculty of Engineering
University of Lagos

How to Cite
Okolie, C. (2020). Spatial and Statistical Analysis of Environmental Noise Levels in the Main Campus of the University of Lagos. The Journal of Engineering Research [TJER], 17(2), 75–88. Retrieved from


  1. Akeh, G.I. and Mshelia, A.D. (2016), The Role of Geographic Information System in Urban Land Administration in Nigeria. MOJ Eoc Environ Sci 1(1): 00004. doi: 10.15406/mojes.2016.01.00004.
  2. Aguilera, I. Foraster, M. Basagaña, X. Corradi, E. Deltell, A. Morelli, X. Phuleria, H.C. Ragettli, M.S. Rivera, M. Thomasson, A. Slama, R. and Künzli, N. (2015), Application of land use regression modelling to assess the spatial distribution of road traffic noise in three European cities. J. Expo. Sci. Environ. Epidemiol., 25(1): 97–105.
  3. Alam, W. (2011), GIS based assessment of noise pollution in Guwahati city of Assam, India. Int. J. Environ. Sci., 2(2): 743 – 751.
  5. Can, A. Van Renterghem, T. Rademaker, M. Dauwe, S. Thomas, P. De Baets, B. and Bot-teldooren, D. (2011), Sampling approaches to predict urban street noise levels using fixed and temporary microphones. J. Environ. Monit., 13(10): 2710–2719.
  7. Carrier, M. Apparicio, P. and Séguin, A. (2016), Road traffic noise in Montreal and environmental equity: what is the situation for the most vulnerable population groups? J. Transp. Geogr., 51: 1-8, ISSN 0966-6923.
  9. Dass, H.K. (1988), Advanced engineering mathematics (First Edition ed.). .
  10. Devore, J.L. (2012), Probability and statistics for engineering and the sciences (Eighth ed.): Richard Stratton.
  12. Eason, S. (2013), Strategic noise mapping with GIS for the Universitat Jaume I Smart Campus: Best Methodology Practices. M.Sc. Thesis. Universitat Jaume I, Castellon, Spain.
  13. Extech (2013), Extech digital sound level meter. product datasheet.
  14. Extech (2014), Extech digital sound level meter model 407730. users guide.
  15. Farcaş, F. and Sivertunb, A. (2009), Road Traffic Noise: GIS Tools for Noise Mapping and a Case Study for Skåne Region. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. 34, Part XXX.
  16. Gholami, A. Nasiri, P. Monazzam, M. Gharagozlou, A. Monavvari, S.M. and Afrous, A. (2012), Evaluation of traffic noise pollution in a central area of Tehran through noise mapping in GIS. Adv. Environ. Biol., 6(8): 2365-2373.
  18. Gloaguen, J.R. Can, A. Lagrange, M. and Petiot, J.F. (2019), Road traffic sound level estimation from realistic urban sound mixtures by Non-negative matrix factorization. Appl. Acoust., 143: 229-238.
  20. Goshu, B.S. Mamo, H. and Zerihun, S. (2017), Urban noise: a case study in Dire-Dawa city, Ethiopia. Eur. J. Biophys., 5: 17-26.
  22. Halperin, D. (2014), Environmental noise and sleep disturbances: a threat to health? Sleep. Sci., 7(4): 209–212.
  24. Hatamzadi, J. Talaiekhozani, A. and Ziaei, G. (2018), Evaluation of noise pollution in Ilam City in 2018. J. Air Pollut. Health., 3: 73-80.
  26. Isaaks, E.H. and Srivastava, R.M. (1989). Applied geostatistics. Oxford University Press, New York. .
  28. Leao, S. Ong, K. and Krezel, A. (2014). 2loud?: Community mapping of exposure to traffic noise with mobile phones. Environ. Monit. Assess., 186(10): 6193-206.
  30. Lee, E.Y. Jerrett, M. Ross, Z. Coogan, P.F. and Seto, E.Y.W. (2014), Assessment of traffic-related noise in three cities in the United States. Environ. Res., 132:182-189.
  31. Li, J. and Heap, A.D. (2008), A review of spatial interpolation methods for environmental scientists. Geoscience Australia, Record 2008/23.
  33. Luqman, Y.A. Rowland, A.G. Zhang, Y. and Zainab, U.O. (2013), Work environment noise levels and risk locations in two selected commercial areas in Ibadan, Nigeria. Global J. Med. Res., 13(6).
  35. Maisonneuve, N. Stevens, M. and Ochab, B. (2010), Participatory noise pollution monitoring using mobile phones. Inf. Polity., 15(1,2):51–71.
  37. Monazzam, M.R. Abbaspour, E.K.M. Nassiri, P. and Taghavi, L. (2014), Spatial traffic noise pollution assessment – a case study. Int. J. Occup. Med. Environ. Health., 28(3):625-634.
  38. Nassiri, P. Elham, K. Mohammad, R.M. Majid, A. and Lobat, T. (2016), Analytical comparison of traffic noise indices — a case study in District 14 of Tehran City. J. Low Freq. Noise. Vibr. Act. Control., 35(3): 221–229.
  40. Nwilo, P.C. (1998), Data Acquisition by Ground Survey Methods. In C.U. Ezeigbo (Ed.) Principles and Applications of Geographic Information Systems. Series in Surveying and Geoinformatics. ISBN 978-027-764-1.
  41. Nwobi-Okoye, C.C. Uyaelumuo, A.E. Duru C.A. and Okoronkwo, G.O.O. (2015). Analysis and modelling of road traffic noise In Onitsha metropolis, Nigeria. Int. J. Adv. Multidiscip. Res., I(1): 1-20.
  43. Obaidat, M.T. (2008), Spatial mapping of traffic noise levels in urban areas. J. Transp. Res. Forum., 47(2): 89-102.
  45. Obiefuna, J.N. Bisong, F.E. and Ettah, E.B. (2013), A GIS analysis of noise islands in Calabar metropolis, Nigeria. J. Environ. Sci., (3), 12.
  47. Ragettli, M.S. Goudreau, S. Plante, C. Fournier, M. Hatzopoulou, M. Perron, S. and Smargiassi, A. (2016), Statistical modeling of the spatial variability of environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada, using noise measurements and land use characteristics. J. Expo. Sci. Environ. Epidemiol., 26(6):597-605.
  49. Ruge, L. Altakrouri, B. and Schrader, A. (2013), Sound of the city - continuous noise monitoring for a healthy city. In Proceedings of the 5thInternational Workshop on Smart Environments and Ambient Intelligen., 670–675.
  51. Taghizadeh-Mehrjardi, R. Zare, M. and Zare, S. (2013), Mapping of noise pollution by different interpolation methods in recovery section of Ghandi telecommunication Cables Company. JOHE, Winter-spring 2013; 2 (1-2). doi: 10.18869/acadpub.johe.
  52. Walker, J. Resnick, R. and Halliday, D. (2014), Fundamentals of physics (10th ed.).
  54. WHO (2019), Guideline values (Date accessed: 18th December, 2019).
  56. Zannin, P.H.T. (2013), Noise mapping of an educational environment. Can. Acoust., 41(1): 27-34.
  58. Zare, S. Hasheminejad, N. Shirvan, H.E. Hasanvand, D. Hemmatjo, R. and Ahmadi, S. (2018), Assessing individual and environmental sound pressure level and sound mapping in Iranian safety shoes factory. Romanian J. Acoust. Vib., 15(1).
  60. Zuo, F. Li, Y. Johnson, S. Johnson, J. Varughese, S. Copes, R. Liu, F. Wu, H.J. Hou, R. and Chen, H. (2014), Temporal and spatial variability of traffic-related noise in the city of Toronto, Canada. Sci. Total. Environ., 15;472:1100-1107.