Main Article Content


Motivation is a key element for successful project execution. However, different people are motivated by various means in different sectors. Hence, this work aims to study, analyze and define the main motivational factors in project execution in the oil and gas industry. To achieve this, a dedicated survey is prepared and distributed among employees working in the oil and gas industry in Oman. To ensure diversifications and minimize biases, the survey is distributed randomly to people working in projects in different organizations in the oil and gas industry. Altogether, 86 respondents completed all the survey questions. The study revealed that, in general, external (extrinsic) factors have a significant motivational influence on employee performance in which money is considered as a powerful motivator. Moreover, task achievement is found to be the major intrinsic motivational factor influencing the employee’s performance. The study also reveals that irrespective of years of experience, organizational type and the level at which employee works, lack of management support will have a significant influence in lowering team motivation in the Oil and gas project. The study can serve as a guideline for the Oil and gas industry to target the specific factor which helps enhance the level of motivation of a specific segment of employees


Motivation Project Management Oil and Gas Industry Extrinsic Intrinsic

Article Details

Author Biography

Nasr AL-HINAI, Department of Mechanical &Industrial Engineering College of Engineering Sultan Qaboos University

Nasr Al-Hinai is an assistant professor at the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, SQU. He received his M.Sc. from the Department of Mechanical, Manufacturing, and Aerospace Engineering, UMIST, UK in 2003 and his Ph.D. from the Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manitoba, Canada, in 2011. He has joined SQU in 2001 after completing his B.Eng. His research interest’s lie in the area of production planning and control, metaheuristics in operations research, product design, and project management. He has published several research papers in both international journals and conference proceedings. 
How to Cite
AL-HINAI, N., Piya, S., & Al-Wardi, K. (2020). Analysis of Factors Affecting Motivation in Projects: A Case Study in Oil and Gas Industry in Oman. The Journal of Engineering Research [TJER], 17(2), 112–125. Retrieved from


  1. Adams, J.S. (1963). Toward an understanding of equity. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67, 422–436.
  2. Alderfer, C.P. (1972). Existence, Relatedness, and Growth; Human Needs in Organizational Settings. Free Press, New York.
  3. Amin, A., Hassan, M. F. B., Ariffin, M. B. M. (2010). Framework of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators of knowledge sharing: A case of training institutes of an oil and gas company in Malaysia, 2010 International Symposium on Information Technology, Kuala Lumpur, 1428-1432.
  4. Asproni, G. (2004). Motivation, teamwork, and agile development. Agile Times, 4(1), 8-15.
  5. Baddoo, N., Hall, T., Jagielska, D., (2006). Software developer motivation in a high maturity company: a case study. Journal of Software Process Improvement and Practice, 11(3), 219–228.
  6. Bateman, T.S., Snell, S., (1999). Management—Building Competitive Advantage 4th ed. McGraw-Hill, Boston.
  7. Beecham, S., Baddoo, N., Hall, T., Robinson, H., Sharp, H., (2008). Motivation in software engineering: a systematic literature review. Information and Software Technology, 50(9–10), 860–878.
  8. CHAOS report (2014). The Standish Group Report. Project Smart, (last accessed on Nov. 13, 2019).
  9. CHAOS report (2015), The Standish Group International, (last accessed on Nov. 13, 2019).
  10. DeMarco, T., Lister, T., (1999). Peopleware: Productive Projects and Teams 2nd ed. Dorset House, New York.
  11. Dolfi, J., Andrews, E.J., (2007). The subliminal characteristics of project managers: an exploratory study of optimism overcoming challenge in the project management work environment. International Journal of Project Management, 25, 674–682.
  12. Dwivedula, R., Bredillet, C.N., (2010). Profiling work motivation of project workers. International Journal of Project Management, 28, 158–165.
  13. Ferratt, T.W., Short, L.E., (1986). Are information systems people different: an investigation of motivational differences. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 10(4), 377–387.
  14. Field, T. (1997). When bad things happen to good projects. CIO, 11(2), 54–62.
  15. Fisher, C.D., Xue Ya Yuan, A., (1998). What motivates employees? A comparison of US and Chinese responses. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 9(3), 516–528.
  16. Germann, M., (2004). Influence of project managers on the motivational factors of a project team. Paper Presented at the 13th International Conference on Management of Technology IAMOT, Washington, DC. April.
  17. Hall, T., Baddoo, N., Beecham, S., Robinson, H., Sharp, H., (2009). A systematic review of theory use in studies investigating the motivations of software engineers. ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology, 18(3), 48–77.
  18. Heimovics, R., Brown, F.G., (1976). Municipal employee behavior as an exchange process. Midwest Review of Public Administration, 10(4), 201–215.
  19. Herzberg, F. (1987). One more time: How do you motivate employees?. Harvard Business Review 65(5), 109–120.
  20. Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., Snyderman, B.B., (1959). The Motivation to Work. John Wiley, New York.
  21. Keller, A.E., (1978). Personnel positioning. Infosystems, 25(6), 50.
  22. Khan, B. A., Jalbani, A. A., (2009). Effect of Compensation System on Employee Motivation: A Case Study of Pakistan Petroleum Limited. Journal of Independent Studies and Research – MSSE, 7(2), 121 – 130.
  23. Khoshnevis, H, Tahmasebi, A. (2016). The Motivation System in a Governmental Organization. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 230, 212 – 218.
  24. Kooij, D., DeLange, A.H., Jansen, P.G.W., Kanfer, R., Dikkers, J.S., (2010). Age and work-related motives: results of a meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(8), 1111–1136.
  25. Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., Opresnik, M. O. (2018). Principles of Marketing, 17th Edition. Pearson Education.
  26. Kovach, K.A., (1987). What motivates employees? Workers and supervisors give different answers. Business Horizons, 30(5), 58–65.
  27. Kovach, K.A., (1995). Employee motivation. Addressing a crucial factor in your organization's performance. Employment Relations Today, 22(2), 93–105.
  28. Labor Relations Institute, (1946). Do you know your workers' wants?. Foremen Facts IX, 21, 1–3.
  29. Lawal, A. L., Okhankhuele, O. T. (2014). The Effect of Motivation on Project Execution in Nigeria: A case study of Bayelsa Plastic Industry, Yenagoa, Baylesa State, Nigeria. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, 4(21), 2985-3002.
  30. Lee-Kelly, L., Leong, K.L., (2003). Turner's five functions of project-based management and situational leadership in IT services projects. International Journal of Project Management, 21, 583–591.
  31. Linberg, K.R., (1999). Software developer perceptions about software project failure: a case study. The Journal of Systems and Software, 49(2), 177–192.
  32. Locke, E.A., (1968). Towards a theory of task motivation and incentives. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 3, 157–189.
  33. Mahaney, R. C., Lederer, A. L., (2006). The effect of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards for developers on information systems project success. Project Management Journal, 37(4), 42-54.
  34. Mak, B.L., Sockel, H., (2001). A confirmatory factor analysis of IS employee motivation and retention. Information & Management, 38(5), 265–276.
  35. Maslow, A.H., (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370–396.
  36. McManus, J., Wood-Harper, T. (2003). Information systems project management: The price of failure. Management Services, 47(5), 16–19.
  37. Meredith, M. (2016). Project Management -A Managerial Approach. Asia: Wiley Plus learning Space, John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd.
  38. Monteiro, D. L. C., Peñaloza, V., Pinto, F. R., Coria, M. D. C. D., & Calderón, L. M. O. (2015). Attitudes towards money and motivational orientation to work in Brazilian young workers. Contaduría y administración, 60(1), 11-30.
  39. Mueller, R., Turner, R., (2009). Leadership competency profiles of successful project managers. International Journal of Project Management, 28(5), 437–448.
  40. Nchorbuno, D. A. (2011). The Role of Motivation on Employee Performance in the Public Sector: A Case Study of the University for Development Studies-Wa Campus, (Doctoral dissertation).
  41. Nel, P.S., Gerber, P.D., Van Dyk, P.S., Haasbroek, G.D., Schultz, H.B., Sono, T., Werner, A., (2001). Human Resources Management 5th ed. Oxford University Press, Cape Town, South Africa.
  42. Nicholson, N., (2003). How to motivate your problem people. Harvard Business Review, 81, 56–67.
  43. Pinder, C.C., (1998). Work Motivation and Organizational Behavior. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
  44. Rony, N. I., Suki, N. M., (2017). Modelling the Relationships between Internal Marketing Factors and Employee Job Satisfaction in Oil and Gas Industry. Asian Social Science, 13(3), 135-144.
  45. Sansone, C., Harackiewicz, J., (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation — the Search for optimal Motivation and Performance. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
  46. Sekhar, C., Patwardhan, M., & Singh, R. K. (2013). A literature review on motivation. Global business perspectives, 1(4), 471-487.
  47. Sharp, H., Baddoo, N., Beecham, S., Hall, T., Robinson, H., (2009). Models of motivation in software engineering. Information and Software Technology, 51(1), 219–233.
  48. Shih, T.-H., Fan, X., (2007). Response rates and mode preferences in web-mail mixed-mode surveys: a meta-analysis. International Journal of Internet Science, 2(1), 59–82.
  49. Skinner, B.F., (1969). Contingencies of Reinforcement: A Theoretical Analysis. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
  50. Seiler, S., Lent, B., Pinkowska, M., & Pinazza, M. (2012). An integrated model of factors influencing project managers' motivation—Findings from a Swiss Survey. International Journal of Project Management, 30(1), 60-72.
  51. Tabassi, A. A., Ramli, M., Abu Bakar A. H. (2011). Training, motivation and teamwork improvement: The case of construction firms. African Journal of Business Management, 5(14), 5627-5636.
  52. Tampoe, M., Thurloway, L., (1993). Project management: the use and abuse of techniques and teams (reflections from a motivation and environment study). International Journal of Project Management, 11(4), 245–250.
  53. Taylor, F.W. (1903), Shop Management (New York, NY: American Society of Mechanical Engineers), OCLC 2365572. Project Gutenberg.
  54. Turner, J.R., Mueller, R., (2003). On the nature of the project as a temporary organization. International Journal of Project Management, 21, 1–8.
  55. Verma, V.K., (1996). Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager: The Human Aspects of Project Management, Volume Two. Project Management Institute, Upper Darby, PA.
  56. Vroom, V.H., (1964). Work and Motivation. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  57. Wiley, C., (1997). What motivates employees according to over 40 years of motivation surveys. International Journal of Manpower, 18(3), 263–280.