Main Article Content


Energy losses in a typical distribution system can be in a range of 6 to 10%, and it depends on the system characteristics, installed equipment, and operating strategies of the distribution network. Losses reduction during peak periods needs special attention since the losses in the system and the cost of the losses are the highest during this peak. Distribution System Owner (DSO) always strives to reduce power losses in the distribution network that eventually leads to energy saving and cost reduction.  This paper presents the model of a selected 33 kV, 11 kV and LV network of a representative primary substation, which is a part of the Muscat Electricity Distribution Company (MEDC) network. In order to quantify the losses in various components, the numerical simulation is carried out using the ETAP software package.  The technical losses, power factors, and voltage profiles are quantified and analyzed. This paper also investigates on the optimal conductor and cable selection for 11kV lines, capitalization values for transformer losses to alleviate system losses and hence the system operational cost. The method of determining optimal conductor and cable size for an 11kV distribution network is presented, where the cost of losses for various conductors with their extra construction or material cost are compared. It also presents the detailed model of calculating capitalization values for distribution transformer losses and sample calculation of the capitalization values. Utilizing these capitalization values, the transformer buyer can calculate the total life cycle cost of the distribution transformers and select the most economical one.



Distribution network Loss reduction method System modeling Optimal conductor selection Capitalization values.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ahshan, R. (2020). Analysis of Loss Reduction Techniques for Low Voltage Distribution Network. The Journal of Engineering Research [TJER], 17(2), 100–111. Retrieved from


  1. Emmanuel M, Rayudu R, Welch I (2017), Grid capacity released analysis and incremental addition computation for distribution system planning. Electric Power System Research, 152: 105-121.
  2. Inan H, Batson J, Scheibe M (2014), Systems Loss Reduction. Leidos, TechAdvantage.
  3. MEDC (2018), Muscat Electricity Distribution Company, Annual report, Muscat, Oman.
  4. Zhu Z, Lu S, Gao B, Yi T, Chen B (2016), Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Three Types of Power Lines in 10 kV Distribution Network. Inventions, 1, 20.
  5. OETC 2019, Five-Year Annual Transmission Capability Statement (2019-2023). Technical Report, Oman Electricity Transmission Company.
  6. Samineni S, Labuschagne C, Pope J (2010), "Principles of shunt capacitor bank application and protection," in Proc. of 63rd Annual Conference for Protective Relay Engineers, College Station, TX, USA, pp. 1-14.
  7. Al-Sarmi S, Al-Ansari H, Al-Badi A, Ahshan R, Al-Hinai S, Al-Hadi Hilal (2019), “Designing a System to Minimize Power Losses in Distribution Network”, in Proc. 15th International Conference for GCC CIGRE, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, pp. 432-440.
  8. Phetlamphanh V, Premrudeepreechacharn S, Ngamsanroaj K (2012), "Technical losses reduction of electrical distribution system in Vientiane capital," in Proc. International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications (ICRERA), Nagasaki, pp. 1-6.
  9. Aburn G, Hough M (2015), Implementing EPA’s Clean Power Plan: A Menu of Options. Technical report, National Association of Clean Air Agencies (NACAA).
  10. Panek J, Elahi H (1989), “Substation voltage upgrading”, in IEEE Power Engineering Review, 9(7): 55-55.
  11. Al-Badi AH, Ahshan R, Hosseinzadeh N. Ghorbani R, Hossain E (2020), Survey of Smart Grid Concepts and Technological Demonstrations Worldwide Emphasizing on the Oman Perspective. Appl. Syst. Innov. 3, 5.
  12. Saadat H (2011), Power System Analysis. PSA Publishing LLC.
  13. Albadi M, Soliman H, Awlad Thani M, Al-Alawi A, Al-Ismaili S, Al-Nabhani A, Baalawi H (2017), Optimal Allocation of PV Systems to Minimize Losses in Distribution Networks Using GA and PSO: Masirah Island Case Study. J. Electrical Systems, 13(4): 678-688.
  14. Booth and Associates, Inc. (1988), Distribution System Loss Evaluation Manual. Technical report, The University of Michigan, USA.
  15. Szwander W (1945), The valuation and capitalization of transformer losses. Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers - Part II: Power Engineering, 92(26): 125-134.
  16. Charalambous CA, Milidonis A, Lazari A, Nikolaidis AI (2013), Loss Evaluation and Total Ownership Cost of Power Transformers—Part I: A Comprehensive Method. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 28(3):1872-1880.
  17. Al-Badi AH, Elmoudi A, Metwally I, Al-Wahaibi A, Al-Ajmi H, Al Bulushi M (2011), “Losses Reduction In Distribution transformers”, in Proc. of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists, Honkong, pp. 1-5.
  18. Wijayapala WDAS, Gamage SRK, Bandara HMSLG (2016), Determination of Capitalization Values for No Load Loss and Load Loss in Distribution Transformers. Journal of the Institution of Engineers, Srilanka, 49(3): 11-20.
  19. C57.120-2017 - IEEE Guide for Loss Evaluation of Distribution and Power Transformers and Reactors.
  20. CRT (2017), Cost Reflective Tariff (CRT) Rates as per (2017), -Muscat Electricity Distribution Company, Oman.
  21. Capability Statement (2018), Distribution System Capability Statement, Muscat Electricity Distribution Company, 2019 – 2021.