The Role of Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns in Human Diseases : Part I - Promoting inflammation and immunity

Walter G. Land

Abstract


There is increasing interest by physicians in the impact of the innate immune system on human diseases. In particular, the role of the molecules that initiate and amplify innate immune pathways, namely damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), is of interest as these molecules are involved in the pathogenesis of many human disorders. The first part of this review identifies five classes of cell stress/tissue injury-induced DAMPs that are sensed by various recognition receptor-bearing cells of the innate immune system, thereby mounting inflammation, promoting apoptosis and shaping adaptive immune responses. The DAMPs activate and orchestrate several innate immune machineries, including inflammasomes and the unfolded protein response that synergistically operates to induce inflammatory, metabolic and adaptive immune pathologies. Two examples of autoimmune diseases are discussed as they represent a typical paradigm of the intimate interplay between innate and adaptive immune responses.



Keywords


Soft Tissue Injury; Innate Immunity; Inflammation; Receptors, Pattern Recognition; Autoimmunity.

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Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 35, Postal Code 123, Al-Khod, Muscat, Oman

ISSN (Print edition): 2075-051X ISSN (Internet edition): 2075-0528

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