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Objectives: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of praziquantel in reducing urinary schistosomiasis prevalence, parasite burden and morbidity rates among a previously reported sample of Schistosoma haematobium-infected children. In addition, predisposing factors for reinfection one year post-treatment were also determined. Methods: This prospective follow-up study was conducted between March 2014 and February 2015 among 675 previously reported children with urinary schistosomiasis in the Murbai and Surbai communities of Ardo Kola, Taraba State, Nigeria. A single dose of 40 mg/kg of praziquantel was administered to each infected child, with a second dose administered one month later if necessary. The number of S. haematobium eggs in urine samples was calculated at baseline and post-treatment. Results: At four weeks post-treatment, the overall cure rate was 98.1%. Among children with low and heavy parasite burdens at baseline, egg reduction rates (ERRs) were 100% and 96.5%, respectively. The vast majority of children with microhaematuria (98.7%) and proteinuria (98.6%) at baseline were cured at follow-up. Following a second dose, the ERR, overall and morbidity cure rates increased to 100%. At one year post-treatment, 272 infected children (40.3%) were re-assessed; of these, 51 children (18.8%) were reinfected. Close proximity to bodies of water (odds ratio [OR] = 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.998–1.530; P = 0.05) and fishing (OR = 2.23, 95% CI: 0.828–6.040; P = 0.01) were significant factors that predisposed children to reinfection. Conclusion: A moderate rate of reinfection was noted. Governmental and nongovernmental organisations in Nigeria should collaborate on mass treatment and health education campaigns to reduce the incidence of urinary schistosomiasis reinfections.
Keywords: Urinary Schistosomiasis; Praziquantel; Treatment Outcome; Follow-Up Study; Nigeria.