Clinical Aspects, Immunophenotypic Analysis and Survival Rate of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia Patients in Erbil City, Iraq

Kawa M. Hasan

Abstract


Objectives: Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is characterised by an accumulation of clonal B cells in the blood, bone marrow and lymphatic tissue. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and immunophenotypic characteristics and survival rate of CLL patients. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Nanakaly Hospital for Blood Diseases & Oncology in Erbil, Iraq, between January 2011 and December 2017. A total of 105 CLL patients were assessed to determine clinical presentation and staging, immunophenotype and survival rate. Results: The median age of the patients was 65 years and 63.8% were male. The main clinical presentations were splenomegaly (64.8%), pallor (61.9%) and lymphadenopathy (60%). More than half of the patients presented at an advanced clinical stage according to the Rai and Binet staging systems (59.1% and 55.2%, respectively). All CLL cases expressed both cluster of differentiation (CD)19 and CD5, 67.6% had monoclonal kappa light chains and 21% expressed CD38. The five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 61.3%. The mean duration of five-year survival was 41.3 months (95% confidence interval: 36.4–46.3 months). There were no correlations between survival and sociodemographic, clinical or laboratory characteristics. Conclusion: In comparison to the existing Western literature, Iraqi CLL patients more frequently presented with hepatosplenomegaly and at a more advanced clinical stage. In addition, the five-year OS rate was much lower.

Keywords: Lymphoproliferative Disorders; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Immunophenotyping; Survival Rates; Iraq.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18295/squmj.2018.18.04.006

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Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 35, Postal Code 123, Al-Khod, Muscat, Oman

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