Fatigue in Pregnancy: The validity and reliability of the Farsi Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue scale

Forough Mortazavi, Fateme Borzoee


Objectives: Fatigue is a common discomfort experienced during pregnancy and may contribute to severe labour pain and postpartum depression. This study aimed to translate the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) scale into Farsi and validate it in a sample of pregnant Irani women. Methods: This cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted between January and June 2016 at eight healthcare centres in Sabzevar, Iran. The English version of the MAF scale was translated into Farsi and assessed for content validity. Participants completed the Farsi MAF scale and the Farsi World Health Organization-5 Well-being index (WHO-5). Construct validity was assessed through exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to determine the internal consistency and stability of the Farsi MAF scale. Results: A total of 582 women met the inclusion criteria, of which 541 completed the MAF scale (response rate: 93%). The EFA of the 15 items confirmed the previously proposed one-factor structure with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.957 for the Farsi MAF scale. Stability was confirmed by the ICC value (0.702) for the Global Fatigue Index (GFI) and the mean GFI was 20.33 ± 12.71. Concurrent validity was confirmed by a moderate negative correlation (r = −0.35; P <0.001) between the scores of the Farsi MAF scale and the Farsi WHO-5. Women who received a high level of support from their husbands, who were satisfied with the quality of their marital relationship and with a well-being score of >50 reported a lower level of fatigue than the other groups (P ≤0.012). Conclusion: The Farsi MAF scale is a reliable and valid questionnaire to investigate fatigue in pregnant Irani women. Interventions to promote marital satisfaction and women’s well-being are recommended. 

Keywords: Fatigue; Parturition; Pregnancy; Psychometrics; Validation Studies; Reliability and Validity; Iran.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18295/squmj.2019.19.01.009


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Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 35, Postal Code 123, Al-Khod, Muscat, Oman

ISSN (Print edition): 2075-051X ISSN (Internet edition): 2075-0528

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