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Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a common complication of pituitary surgery. However, it is most frequently transient. It is defined by the excretion of an abnormally large volume of dilute urine with increasing serum osmolality. The reported incidence of CDI after pituitary surgery is variable; ranging from 0-90 %. Large tumor size, gross total resection, and intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak usually have an increased risk of CDI as also seen with craniopharyngioma and Rathke’s cleft cysts. It can be associated with high morbidities and mortality if not promptly recognized and treated on time. It is essential to rule out other causes of postoperative polyuria to avoid unnecessary pharmacotherapy and iatrogenic hyponatremia. Once the diagnosis of CDI is established, close monitoring is required to evaluate the response to treatment and to determine whether the CDI is transient or permanent. This review outlines the evaluation and management of patients with CDI after pituitary and suprasellar tumors surgery to help recognize the diagnosis, consider the differential diagnosis, initiate therapeutic interventions, guide monitoring, and long-term management.
Keywords: Central diabetes insipidus (CDI), polydipsia, polyuria, pituitary adenoma, preoperative risk factor, and pituitary surgery, arginine vasopressin, desmopressin, and treatment.
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