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This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the cytotoxic and genotoxic impacts of waterpipe smoking on oral health. The databases MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and Dimensions were searched to find studies evaluating whether waterpipe smokers exhibited any cytotoxic or genotoxic effects on their oral cells compared to non-smokers, with regard to mouth neoplasms. Particularly, changes in DNA methylation and p53 expression were assessed. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were adopted for the systematic review. Review Manager was utilised for statistical analysis with a significance level at P <0.05. To assess the grades of the included articles, a risk of bias analysis was summarised. A forest plot, including some of the included articles included, was created regarding the different grades. A total of 20 studies were included in this review. The results showed that waterpipe smoking has cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on oral cells, with a risk difference of 0.16. Although the published articles are few in number, all confirm the devastating effects of waterpipe smoking related to the carcinogenicity. Waterpipe smoking is harmful to oral health. It causes a series of detrimental cellular and genetic modifications such as acanthosis, epithelial dysplasia and hyperparakeratosis. In addition, waterpipe smoke contains several carcinogenic compounds. As it releases many harmful organic compounds, waterpipe smoking increases the incidence of oral cancer.
Keywords: Mouth Neoplasms; Oral Health; Smoking Waterpipes; Tobacco Use; Toxicity Tests.
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