Handling Practices During Distribution of Kinnow-Mandarins (Citrus nobilis x Citrus deliciosa) Used for Preparation of Fresh-Squeezed Juices and their Effects on Microbiological Safety

M. Ghosh, A. Ganguli, M. Kumar


The objective of this study was to assess the microbiological safety of Kinnow-mandarins (Citrus nobilis X Citrus deliciosa) used for preparation of fresh squeezed juices by street vendors. One hundred and fifty Kinnow mandarin samples were collected from different points in the distribution chain from the same lot, washed and aliquots of the wash samples were analyzed for total aerobes, Staphylococcus, total and fecal coliforms, Salmonella and Shigella. Although, there was no notable increase in the total aerobic, total or fecal coliform counts, total staphylococcal counts increased significantly (P<0.05) during distribution to street vendors; seventy-two samples from the street vendors showed the presence of coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus, twenty-three of these produced enterotoxins B and C. Salmonella and Shigella were not detected in any of the samples. Sources of high numbers of enterotoxigenic S. aureus were traced to unhygienic manual handling by middle level buyers and by street vendors. The results of our study demonstrate the poor microbiological quality of Kinnow-mandarins, the possible entry points of contaminants in the distribution chain of these fruits and unhygienic vending practices. Appropriate intervention measures are needed to ensure safe fresh squeezed juices for consumers.



India, distribution chain, enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jams.vol10iss1pp27-31


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Copyright (c) 2017 M. Ghosh, A. Ganguli, M. Kumar

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